Current Therapy in Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 5th Edition

Current Therapy in Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

5th Edition

By James C. Stanley, MD, Handleman Professor of Surgery, Director, Frankel Cardiovascular Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan ; Frank Veith, MD, Professor of Surgery, New York University, New York, New York Professor of Surgery and William J. von Liebig Chair in Vascular Surgery, Cleveland Clinic and Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio and Thomas W Wakefield, MD, Professor , Section Head , James C. Stanley Professor of Vascular Surgery, Cardiovascular Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan


CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

1. Pathology of Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis

2. Carotid and Vertebral Artery Fibrodysplasia

3. Carotid Artery Dissection

4. Carotid Artery Kinks and Coils

5. Giant Cell Arteritis

6. Arteriographic Evaluation of Cerebrovascular Disease

7. Computerized Tomography in Cerebrovascular Disease

8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Positron Emission Tomography in the Evaluation of Cerebrovascular Disease

9. Duplex scanning and spectral analysis of carotid bifurcation atherosclerotic disease

10. Transcranial Doppler in the Evaluation of Cerebrovascular Disease

11. Medical treatment to prevent transient ischemic attacks and ischemic stroke

12. Medical Therapy including Fibrinolytic Therapy of Acute Ischemic Stroke

13. Selection of Patients for Carotid Endarterectomy versus Carotid Artery Stenting

14. Technical Aspects of Percutaneous Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting for Arteriosclerotic Disease

15. Reversal of Cerebral Blood Flow to Prevent Stroke During Percutaneous Carotid Artery Angioplasty and Stenting

16. Embolic Protection Devices to Prevent Stroke During Percutaneous Angioplasty and Stenting

17. Blood Pressure Instability After Percutaneous Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting

18. Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome After Carotid Endarterectomy and Carotid Stenting

19. Treatment of Recurrent Carotid Artery Stenosis After Percutaneous Angioplasty and Stenting

20. Technical Aspects of Conventional Carotid Endarterectomy for Atherosclerotic Disease

21. Technical Aspects of Eversion Carotid Endarterectomy for Atherosclerotic Disease

22. Patch Graft Closure with Carotid Endarterectomy

23. Management of Infected Carotid Artery Patch

24. Role of Shunting During Carotid Endarterectomy

25. Intraoperative Assessment of the Technical Adequacy of Carotoid Endarterectomy

26. Intraoperative Recognition and Treatment of Cerebral Ischemia During Carotid Endarterectomy

27. Early Postoperative Recognition and Management of Acute Stroke After Carotid Endarterectomy

28. Regional and Local Anesthesia for Carotid Endarterectomy

29. Carotid Endarterectomy or Stenting for Evolving Stroke Secondary to Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis

30. Timing of Carotid Endarterectomy After Fixed Stroke Secondary to Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis

31. Carotid Occlusion and Near-Carotid Occlusion of the Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery

32. Blood Pressure Instability After Carotid Endarterectomy

33. Relevance of External Carotid Artery Disease in the Setting of Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion

34. Intracranial Occlusive Disease and Aneurysms: Influence on Carotid Revascularization Outcomes

35. Pathology of Carotid Artery Restenosis

36. Treatment of Recurrent Stenosis After Previous Carotid Endarterectomy

37. Management of Concomitant Carotid and Coronary Arterial Disease

38. The Role of Extracranial Intracranial Bypass in Contemporary Practice

39. Open Surgical Treatment of Fibromuscular Dysplasia of the Carotid Artery Fibrodysplasia

40. Endovascular Treatment of Fibromuscular Dysplasia of the Carotid Artery

41. Vertebral Artery Reconstruction for Vertebrobasilar Ischemia

42. Endovascular Angioplasty and Stenting for Proximal Subclavian Artery Stenoses

43. Subclavian to Carotid Arterial Transposition

44. Carotid-Subclavian Bypass and other Nonanatomic Revascularizations for Proximal Subclavian Artery Stenosis

45. Conventional Surgical and Endovascular Treatment of Innominate Artery Atherosclerosis

46. Extracranial Carotid Artery Aneurysms

47. Carotid Body Tumors

48. Radiation-Induced Arteritis

49. Surgical Treatment of Takayasu Arteritis

UPPER EXTREMITY ARTERIAL DISEASE

50. Pathology of Upper Extremity Arterial Disease

51. Upper extremity revascularization

52. Diagnosis and Treatment of Upper Extremity Vasospastic Disease

53. Extremity Causalgia - Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

54. Thoracic Sympathectomy

55. Etiology and Anatomic Pathology of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

56. Diagnosis of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

57. Conservative Treatment for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

58. Transaxillary Operative Management of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

59. Supraclavicular Operative Approach for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

60. Treatment of Arterial Complications in Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

61. Subclavian and Axillary Artery Aneurysms

62. Buerger's Disease

63. Ergotism

64. Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome

AORTIC ANEURYSM

65. Pathogenesis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

66. Genetics of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

67. Pathogensis of Inflammatory Aortic Aneurysms

68. Pathophysiology of Aortic Dissections

69. Arteriomegaly and Aneurysmosis

70. Vascular complications of Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

71. Ultrasonography in the Evaluation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

72. Arteriography in the Evaluation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

73. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Evaluation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

74. Computed Tomography and Computed Tomographic Arteriography in the Evaluation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

75. Selection of Patients with Aortic Aneurysms for Open Surgical or Endovascular Repair

76. Management of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

77. Endovascular Treatment of Nonruptured Infrarenal Aortic and Aortoiliac Aneurysms

78. Endovascular Treatment of Pararenal and Suprarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

79. Endovascular Treatment of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

80. Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Infrarenal Aortic Aneurysms

81. Management of Coexistent Splanchnic and Renal Artery Occlusive Disease During Endovascular Aortic Reconstructions

82. Internal iliac artery embolization as an adjunct to endovascular aneurysm repair

83. Endovascular Iliac Branch Devices for Iliac Aneurysms

84. Iliac Artery Conduits for Endovascular Access

85. Conversion to Open Surgical Treatment after Failed Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair

86. Treatment of Endovascular Leaks after Aortic Endografting

87. Management of Acute Limb Ischemia Complicating Aortic Reconstruction

88. Intestinal and Renal Ischemia Complicating Open and Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Reconstructions

89. Neurologic Complications After Open and Endovascular Aortic Surgery

90. Postoperative Surveillance of Thoracic and Abdominal Aortic Endografts

91. Treatment of Aortic Endograft Migration

92. Open Transperitoneal Surgical Treatment of Nonruptured Infrarenal Aortic Aneurysms

93. Open Surgical Treatment of Ruptured Infrarenal Aortic Aneurysms

94. Surgical Treatment of Infected Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

95. Surgical Treatment of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

96. Open Surgical Treatment of Pararenal and Suprarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

97. Retreoperitoneal Approach for Elective Abdominal Aortic Aneurysmectomy

98. Autotransfusion in Aortic Reconstruction

99. Surgical Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm-Inferior Vena Cava Fistula

100. Management of Primary Aortoenteric Fistulas

101. Renal Ectopia and Renal Fusion in Patients Requiring Abdominal Aortic Operations

102. Venous Anomalies Encountered During Aortic Reconstruction

103. Open and Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Renal Transplant Patients

104. Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair and Concurrent Nonvascular Disease

105. Recognition and Treatment of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Following Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

106. Endovascular Treatment of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

107. Endovascular Graft Completion of Thoracic Aneurysm Repair

108. Thoracic and Abdominal Aortic Debranching in the Endovascular Treatment of Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysms

109. Endograft (Vortec) Reconstruction of Aortic Branches Allowing Endovascular Treatment of Aortic Aneurysms

110. Multibranched endovascular repair of TAAA

111. Open Surgical Treatment of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

112. Open Surgical Treatment of Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysms

113. Paraplegia Prevention in Thoracic and Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

114. Non-operative Medical Management of Acute Aortic Dissection

115. Endovascular Treatment of Aortic Dissections

116. Open Surgical Treatment of Aortic Dissections

117. Natural History and Open Treatment of Isolated Iliac Artery Aneurysms

118. Endovascular Treatment of Isolated Iliac Artery Aneurysms

119. Long-Term Alterations in Large Caliber Arterial Prostheses Used for Aortic Replacement

120. Surgical Treatment of Pediatric Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

LOWER EXTREMITY ANEURYSM

121. Arteriosclerotic Femoral Artery Aneurysms

122. Infected Femoral Artery False Aneurysms

123. Obturator Foramen Bypass Grafts in Groin Sepsis

124. Endovascular Treatment of Popliteal Artery Aneurysms

125. Open Surgical Treatment of Popliteal Artery Aneurysms

AORTOILIAC OCCLUSIVE DISEASE

126. Anatomic Pattern and Natural History of Aortoiliac and Infrainguinal Atherosclerosis

127. Conventional Arteriography, Magnetic Resonance Angiography, and Computed Tomographic Arteriography of Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease

128. Physiologic and Noninvasive Studies to Document Severity and Extent of Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease

129. Selection of Patients for Open Surgical or Endovascular Treatment of Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease

130. Percutaneous Arterial Angioplasty, with and without Stenting for Atherosclerotic Aortic and Iliac Artery Occlusive Disease

131. Aortofemoral Bypass for Atherosclerotic Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease

132. Endarterectomy for Atherosclerotic Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease

133. Management of Juxtarenal Aortic Occlusive Disease by Retroperitoneal Transabdominal Exposures of the Pararenal and Suprarenal Aorta

134. Acute Aortic Occlusion

135. Aortic Graft Limb Occlusion

136. Open and Endovascular Treatment of Anastomotic Aneurysms After Aortoaortic, Aortoiliac and Aortofemoral Bypass

137. Laparoscopic Aortic Surgery

138. Combined Endovascular and Laparoscopic Aortic Surgery

139. Abdominal Aortic Coarctation and Hypoplasia

140. Descending Thoracic Aorta to Femoral Artery Bypass

141. Axillofemoral Bypass

142. Unilateral Retroperitoneal Iliofemoral Bypass

143. Femorofemoral Bypass for Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease

144. Diagnosis of Aortic Graft Infection

145. Treatment of Aortic Graft Infection by Replacement

146. In Situ Treatment of Aortic Graft Infection with Prosthetic Grafts and Allografts

147. Aortic Graft-Enteric Fistula

148. Vasculogenic and Postoperative Neurogenic Impotence

149. Drug Therapy of Erectile Dysfunction

150. Management of Groin Lymphocele and Lymph Fistula

151. Management of Chyloperitoneum and Chylothorax After Aortic Reconstruction

152. Coronary Artery Disease in Patients being Treated for Aortic Aneurysms and Occlusive Disease

153. Pulmonary Risks in Patients being Treated for Aortic Aneurysms and Occlusive Disease

154. Metabolic Syndrome in the Contemporary World

155. Smoking as a Risk Factor in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

156. Smoking: Preventive Measures

157. Treatment of Dyslipidemia and Hypertriglyceridemia

158. Hypertension as a Risk Factor in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

159. Diabetes as a Risk Factor in Atherosclerotic Cerebrovascular Disease

160. Homocysteine as a Risk Factor in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

161. Nitric Oxide and Vascular Disease

162. Integrative Therapies in Vascular Disease

LOWER EXTREMITY OCCLUSIVE DISEASE

163. Conventional and Computed Tomographic Angiography for Evaluation of Infrainguinal Occlusive Disease

164. Magnetic Resonance Angiography for Evaluation of Infrarenal Occlusive Disease

165. Doppler Pressure Evaluation of Infrainguinal Occlusive Disease

166. Duplex Imaging of Infrainguinal Occlusive Disease

167. Intravascular Ultrasound for Imaging of Diseased Arteries

168. Selection of Patients for Open Surgical or Endovascular Treatment of Lower Extremity Occlusive Disease

169. Percutaneous Angioplasty with and without Stenting for Lower Extremity Occlusive Disease

170. Subintimal Recanalization for Lower Extremity Occlusive Disease

171. Endovascular Grafts in the Treatment of Lower Extremity Occlusive Disease

172. Percutaneous Cryoplasty and Laser Treatment of Lower Extremity Occlusive Disease

173. Duplex Directed Vascular Intervention for Lower Extremity Arteriosclerotic Occlusive Disease

174. Reversed and Nonreversed Transposed Autogenous Vein Grafting for Atherosclerotic Lower Extremity Oclusive Disease

175. Short Vein Grafts from the Distal Superficial Femoral, Popliteal, or Infrapopliteal Arteries for Limb Salvage

176. In Situ Saphenous Vein Grafting for Lower Extremity Occlusive Disease

177. Arm Veins for Lower Extremity Arterial Reconstruction

178. Composite Sequential Bypass Grafts for Lower Extremity Occlusive Disease

179. Expanded Teflon and Dacron Grafts for Lower Extremity Arteriosclerotic Occlusive Disease

180. Human Umbilical Vein and Other Biografts for Atherosclerotic Lower Extremity Occlusive Disease

181. Deep Femoral Artery Reconstruction for the Treatment of Lower Extremity Ischemia

182. Open Superficial Femoral Artery Endarterectomy for Lower Extremity Arteriosclerotic Occlusive Disease

183. Percutaneous Mechnical and Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Thrombosis of Lower Extremity Arteries and Grafts

184. Operative Thrombectomy for Acute Thrombosis of Lower Extremity Bypass Grafts

185. Surveillance of Lower Extremity Bypass Grafts

186. Open Surgery and Endovascular Management of Failing Infrainguinal Bypass Graft

187. Complications and Treatment of Persistent Sciatic Arteries

188. Popliteal Artery Adventitial Cystic Disease

189. Popliteal Entrapment and Chronic Lower Extremity Compartment Syndromes

190. Exercise in the Management of Lower Extremity Occlusive Disease

191. Pharmacologic Management of Intermittent Claudication

192. Ulceration of the Neuroischemic Diabetic Foot

193. Lumbar Sympathectomy for Lower Extremity Ischemic Ulcers

194. Angiogenic Gene Therapy

195. Stem Cell Therapy

196. Prothrombotic States and Vascular Thromboses

197. Role of Antithrombotic Drugs in Maintaining Graft Patency

198. Complications of Heparin Anticoagulation Therapy

EMBOLIC DISEASES OF THE EXTREMITIES

199. Arterial Macroembolism

200. Paradoxical Embolism

201. Microarterial Atheroembolism

202. Operative Revascularization for "Trash Foot"

203. Anticoagulant and Lytic Therapy for Arterial Thromboembolism in the Extremities

204. Balloon Catheter Embolectomy for Macroembolization in the Extremities

205. Noninvasive Methods of Diagnosing Cardiac and Noncardiac Sources of Macroemboli

AMPUTATION

206. Toe and Foot Amputations

207. Below-Knee Amputations

208. Above-Knee Amputations and Hip Disarticulations

209. Upper Extremity Amputations

210. Rehabilitation of the Amputee

VASCULAR TRAUMA

211. Conventional and Computed Tomographic Arteriography in Penetrating Vascular Injuries

212. Nonarteriographic Evaluation of Penetrating Vascular Injuries

213. Penetrating and Blunt Injuries of the Carotid Artery

214. Penetrating and Blunt Injuries of the Vertebral Artery

215. Blunt Arterial Injuries of the Shoulder, Open and Endovascular Therapy

216. Penetrating Injuries of the Aortic Arch, Innominate Artery and Subclavian Artery

217. Open and Endovascular Treatment of Blunt and Penetrating Nonaortic Abdominal Vascular Injuries

218. Open and Endovascular Repair of Aortic Injury

219. Complications of Upper and Lower Extremity Percutaneous Arterial Puncture and Catheterization

220. Open and Endovascular Treatment of Penetrating Extremity Arterial Injuries

221. Blunt Arterial Injuries to the Knee

222. Fasciotomy in Vascular Trauma and Extremity Compartment Syndrome

223. Ischemia-Induced Myonecrosis, Myoglobinuria, and Secondary Renal Failure

224. Vascular Injury Secondary to Drug Abuse

225. Cold Injury

226. Pediatric Iatrogenic Vascular Injury

MESENTERIC VASCULAR DISEASE

227. Arteriographic Evaluation of Splanchnic Artery Occlusive Disease

228. Duplex Scanning in the Diagnosis of Splanchnic Artery Occlusive Disease

229. Acute Embolic and Thrombotic Mesenteric Ischemia

230. Endovascular Therapy for Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia

231. Transaortic Splanchnic Endarterectomy for Chronic Mesenteric Ischemi

232. Arterial Bypass for Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia

233. Operative Treatment of Pediatric Splanchnic Arterial Occlusive Disease

234. Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome

235. Nonocclusive Mesenteric Ischemia

236. Venous Thrombosis within the Splanchnic Circulation

237. Celiac, Hepatic,and Splenic Artery Aneurysms

238. Mesenteric Artery Aneurysm

239. Gastroduodenal and Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysms

240. Vascular Malformations and Arteriovenous Fistulae of the Gastrointestinal Tract

RENOVASCULAR DISEASE

241. Pathology of Arteriosclerotic, Fibrodysplastic, and Developmental Renal Artery Occlusive Disease

242. Conventional Arteriographic and Computed Tomographic Arteriographic Diagnosis of Renovascular Hypertension

243. Magnetic Resonance Angiography in the Evaluation of Renovascular Disease

244. Duplex Scanning in the Evaluation of Renal Arteiral Occlusive Disease

245. Renovascular Hypertension and Renal Artery Occlusive Disease

246. Renal Insufficiency and Renal Artery Occlusive Disease

247. Selection of Patients for Open Surgical or Endovascular Treatment of Renal Artery Arteriosclerotic Disease

248. Percutaneous Arterial Dilation and Stenting for Arteriosclerotic Renovascular Hypertension

249. Percutaneous Arterial Dilation for Fibrodysplastic Renovascular Hypertension

250. Transaortic Renal Artery and Endarterectomy for Renal Artery Atherosclerosis

251. Aortorenal Bypass for Renovascular Hypertension in Adults

252. Alternative Renal Artery Reconstructive Techniques: Hepatorenal, Spenorenal, Iliorenal, and Mesorenal Bypass Procedures

253. Ex Vivo Arterial Repair for Renovascular Hypertension Secondary to Fibrodysplasia

254. Operative Evaluation of Renal and Visceral Arterial Reconstructions Using Duplex Sonography

255. Surgical Treatment of Renovascular Hypertension in Children

256. Renal Artery Dissections

257. Renal Artery Embolism

258. Renal Vein Thrombosis

259. Treatment of Renal Artery Aneurysms

260. Renal Arteriovenous Malformations and Arteriovenous Fistulae

ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULAE AND ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS

261. Classification of Peripheral Arteriovenous and Venous Malformations

262. Arteriography and Magnetic Resonance Angiography for the Diagnosis of Peripheral Vascular Fistulae and Arterial and Venous Malformations

263. Treatment of Congenital Vascular Malformations in Children and Adults

264. Treatment of Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistulas

ANGIOACCESS SURGERY

265. External Methods of Angioaccess

266. Direct Arteriovenous Communication Angioaccess

267. Bridge Grafts for Angioaccess

268. Surveillance of Angioaccess Graft Function

269. Treatment of Thrombotic Complications of Dialysis Access

270. Ambulatory Treatment of Dialysis Access Stenoses

VENOUS DISEASE

271. Coagulation Cascade and Thrombosis

272. Pathophysiology of Acute Venous Thrombosis

273. Ultrasonography for the Diagnosis of Venous Disease

274. Magnetic Resonance Venography and Computed Tomographic Venography

275. Invasive Methods of Diagnosing Acute and Chronic Venous Disease

276. Natural History of Acute Venous Thrombosis

277. Nonoperative Treatment of Acute Lower Extremity Venous Thrombosis

278. New and Alternative Anticoagulants

279. Warfarin-Induced Skin Necrosis

280. Endovascular Thrombolysis and Mechanical Clot Removal for Acute Symptomatic Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis

281. Open Surgical Treatment of Acute Iliofemoral and Inferior Vena Thrombosis

282. Treatment of Acute Upper Extremity Venous Occlusion

283. Treatment of Septic (Purulent and Suppurative) Thrombophlebitis

284. Pathology and Classification of Chronic Venous Insufficiency

285. Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Venous Occlusion

286. Endovascular Laser Treatment of Varicose Veins

287. Endovascular Radiofrequency Treatment of Varicose Veins

288. Injection Treatment of Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

289. Excision of Varicose Veins

290. Open Surgical Treatment of Chronic Venous Insufficiency

291. Nonoperative Treatment of Chronic Venous Insufficiency

292. Pathogenesis of Cutaneous Venous Ulcers

293. Open Surgical, Endoscopic, and Endovascular Treatment of Perforating Veins

294. Nonoperative Treatment of Venous Ulcers

295. Renal Vein Entrapment: Nutcracker Syndrome

296. Pelvic Venous Flow Disorders and Pelvic Congestion

297. Endovascular Treatment of Vena Cava Occlusion

298. Open Surgical Treatment of Thrombotic Vena Cava Occlusion

299. Primary and Secondary Vena Cava Tumors

300. Nonoperative Treatment of Acute Pulmonary Embolism

301. Surgical Treatment of Acute and Chronic Pulmonary Embolism

302. Permanent and Temporary Vena Cava Filters

303. Venous Aneurysms

LYMPHATIC DISEASE

304. Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation

305. Lymphedema, Medical and Physical Therapy

306. Surgical Treatment of Lymphedema