Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Expert Consult - Online and Print, 4th Edition

Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases

4th Edition Expert Consult - Online and Print

By Sarah S. Long, MD, Chief, Section if Infectious Diseases, St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Larry K. Pickering, MD, Senior Advisor to the Director, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Professor of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA and Charles G. Prober, MD, Senior Associate Dean, Medical Education Stanford University School of Medicine, Office of the Dean, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA


Part I: Understanding, Controlling, and Preventing Infectious Diseases

A. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases

1 Principles of Epidemiology and Public Health

2 Pediatric Infection Prevention and Control

3 Infections Associated with Group Childcare

4 Infectious Diseases in Refugee and Internationally Adopted Children

B. Prevention of Infectious Diseases

5 Passive Immunization

6 Active Immunization

7 Chemoprophylaxis

8 Protection of Travelers

C. Host Defenses against Infectious Diseases

9 Immunologic Development and Susceptibility to Infection

10 Fever and the Inflammatory Response

Part II: Clinical Syndromes and Cardinal Features of Infectious Diseases: Approach to Diagnosis and Initial Management

A. Septicemia, Toxin- and Inflammation-Mediated Syndromes

11 The Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Sepsis, and Septic Shock

12 Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Macrophage Activation Syndrome

B. Cardinal Symptom Complexes

13 Mucocutaneous Symptom Complexes

14 Fever without Localizing Signs

15 Prolonged, Recurrent and Periodic Fever Syndromes

16 Lymphatic System and Generalized Lymphadenopathy

17 Cervical Lymphadenitis and Neck Infections

18 Mediastinal and Hilar Lymphadenopathy

19 Abdominal and Retroperitoneal Lymphadenopathy

20 Localized Lymphadenitis, Lymphadenopathy, and Lymphangitis

21 Respiratory Tract Symptom Complexes

22 Abdominal Symptom Complexes

23 Neurologic Symptom Complexes

24 Musculoskeletal Symptom Complexes

C. Oral Infections and Upper and Middle Respiratory Tract Infections

25 Infections of the Oral Cavity

26 The Common Cold

27 Pharyngitis

28 Infections Related to the Upper and Middle Airways

29 Otitis Media

30 Otitis Externa and Necrotizing Otitis Externa

31 Mastoiditis

32 Sinusitis

D. Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

33 Bronchiolitis

34 Acute Pneumonia and Its Complications

35 Persistent and Recurrent Pneumonia

36 Pneumonia in the Immunocompromised Host

E. Cardiac and Vascular Infections

37 Endocarditis and Other Intravascular Infections

38 Myocarditis

39 Pericarditis

F. Central Nervous System Infections

40 Acute Bacterial Meningitis beyond the Neonatal Period

41 Chronic Meningitis

42 Recurrent Meningitis

43 Aseptic and Viral Meningitis

44 Encephalitis

45 Para- and Postinfectious Neurologic Syndromes

46 Focal Suppurative Infections of the Nervous System

47 Eosinophilic Meningitis

48 Prion Diseases

G. Genitourinary Tract Infections

49 Urinary Tract Infections

50 Renal Abscess and Other Complex Renal Infections

51 Sexually Transmitted Infection Syndromes

52 Skin and Mucous Membrane Infections and Inguinal Lymphadenopathy

53 Urethritis, Vulvovaginitis, and Cervicitis

54 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

55 Epididymitis, Orchitis, and Prostatitis

56 Infectious Diseases in Child Abuse

H. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections and Intoxications

57 Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Gastrointestinal Tract Infections

58 Viral Gastroenteritis

59 Inflammatory Enteritis

60 Necrotizing Enterocolitis

61 Enteric Diseases Transmitted through Food, Water, and Zoonotic Exposures

I. Intra-Abdominal Infections

62 Acute Hepatitis

63 Chronic Hepatitis

64 Granulomatous Hepatitis

65 Acute Pancreatitis

66 Cholecystitis and Cholangitis

67 Peritonitis

68 Appendicitis

69 Intra-Abdominal, Visceral, and Retroperitoneal Abscesses

J. Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections

70 Superficial Bacterial Skin Infections and Cellulitis

71 Erythematous Macules and Papules

72 Vesicles and Bullae

73 Purpura

74 Urticaria and Erythema Multiforme

75 Papules, Nodules, and Ulcers

76 Subcutaneous Tissue Infections and Abscesses

77 Myositis, Pyomyositis, and Necrotizing Fasciitis

K. Bone and Joint Infections

78 Osteomyelitis

79 Infectious and Inflammatory Arthritis

80 Diskitis

81 Transient Synovitis

L. Eye Infections

82 Conjunctivitis in the Neonatal Period (Ophthalmia Neonatorum)

83 Conjunctivitis beyond the Neonatal Period

84 Infective Keratitis

85 Uveitis, Retinitis, and Chorioretinitis

86 Endophthalmitis

87 Periorbital and Orbital Infections

M. Infections Related to Trauma

88 Infection following Trauma

89 Infection following Burns

90 Infection following Bites

91 Infections Related to Pets and Exotic Animals

92 Tickborne Infections

N. Infections of the Fetus and Newborn

93 Clinical Approach to the Infected Neonate

94 Bacterial Infections in the Neonate

95 Viral Infections in the Fetus and Neonate

96 Hospital-Associated Infections in the Neonate

O. Infections and Transplantation

97 Infections in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

98 Infections in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

P. Infections and Cancer

99 Fever and Granulocytopenia

100 Infections in Children with Cancer

Q. Infections Associated with Hospitalization and Medical Devices

101 Healthcare-Associated Infections

102 Clinical Syndromes of Device-Associated Infections

R. Infections in Patients with Deficient Defenses

103 Evaluation of the Child with Suspected Immunodeficiency

104 Infectious Complications of Antibody Deficiency

105 Infectious Complications of Complement Deficiencies

106 Infectious Complications of Dysfunction or Deficiency of Polymorphonuclear and Mononuclear Phagocytes

107 Infectious Complications of Cell-Mediated Immunity Other Than AIDS: Primary Immunodeficiencies

108 Infectious Complications in Special Hosts

S. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

109 Epidemiology and Prevention of HIV Infection in Children and Adolescents

110 Immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection

111 Diagnosis and Clinical Manifestations of HIV Infection

112 Infectious Complications of HIV Infection

113 Management of HIV Infection

Part III: Etiologic Agents of Infectious Diseases

A. Bacteria

114 Classification of Bacteria

Gram-Positive Cocci

115 Staphylococcus aureus

116 Staphylococcus epidermidis and Other Coagulase- Negative Staphylococci

117 Classification of Streptococci

118 Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus)

119 Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus)

120 Enterococcus Species

121 Viridans Streptococci, Abiotrophia and Granulicatella Species, and Streptococcus bovis

122 Groups C and G Streptococci

123 Streptococcus pneumoniae

124 Other Gram-Positive, Catalase-Negative Cocci

Gram-Negative Cocci

125 Neisseria meningitidis

126 Neisseria gonorrhoeae

127 Other Neisseria Species

Gram-Positive Bacilli

128 Archanobacterium haemolyticum

129 Bacillus Species (Anthrax)

130 Corynebacterium diphtheriae

131 Other Corynebacteria

132 Listeria monocytogenes

133 Other Gram-Positive Bacilli

134 Mycobacterium tuberculosis

135 Mycobacterium Species Non-tuberculosis

136 Nocardia Species

Enterobacteriaceae: Gram-Negative Bacilli

137 Escherichia coli

138 Klebsiella and Raoultella Species

139 Klebsiella (Calymmatobacterium) granulomatis (Granuloma Inguinale)

140 Enterobacter, Cronobacter, and Pantoea Species

141 Citrobacter Species

142 Less Commonly Encountered Enterobacteriaceae

143 Plesiomonas shigelloides

144 Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella Species

145 Serratia Species

146 Salmonella Species

147 Shigella Species

148 Yersinia Species

Nonenterobacteriaceae: Gram-Negative Bacilli

149 Acinetobacter Species

150 Aeromonas Species

151 Less Commonly Encountered Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli

152 Eikenella, Pasteurella, and Chromobacterium Species

153 Moraxella and Psychrobacter Species

154 Pseudomonas Species and Related Organisms

155 Pseudomonas aeruginosa

156 Burkholderia cepacia Complex and Other Burkholderia Species

157 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

158 Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)

159 Other Vibrio Species

Gram-Negative Coccobacilli

160 Bartonella Species (Cat-Scratch Disease)

161 Brucella Species (Brucellosis)

162 Bordetella pertussis (Pertussis) and Other Bordetella Species

163 Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

164 Other Campylobacter Species

165 Capnocytophaga Species

166 Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae

167 Chlamydia trachomatis

168 Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci (Psittacosis)

169 Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)

170 Ehrlichia and Anaplasma Species (Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis)

171 Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)

172 Haemophilus influenzae

173 Other Haemophilus Species

174 Helicobacter pylori

175 Other Gastric and Enterohepatic Helicobacter Species

176 Kingella Species

177 Legionella Species

178 Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever)

179 Other Rickettsia Species

180 Streptobacillus moniliformis (Rat-Bite Fever)

181 Other Gram-Negative Coccobacilli

Treponemataceae (Spiral Organisms)

182 Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)

183 Other Treponema Species

184 Leptospira Species (Leptospirosis)

185 Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme Disease)

186 Other Borrelia Species and Spirillum minus

Anaerobic Bacteria

187 Anaerobic Bacteria: Classification, Normal Flora, and Clinical Concepts

188 Clostridium tetani (Tetanus)

189 Clostridium botulinum (Botulism)

190 Clostridium difficile

191 Other Clostridium Species

192 Bacteroides and Prevotella Species and Other Gram-Negative Bacilli

193 Fusobacterium Species

194 Anaerobic Cocci

195 Anaerobic Gram-Positive, Nonsporulating Bacilli (including Actinomycosis)

Mycoplasma

196 Mycoplasma pneumoniae

197 Other Mycoplasma Species

198 Ureaplasma urealyticum

Diseases of Possible Infectious or Unknown Etiology

199 Kawasaki Disease

200 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

B. Viruses

201 Classification of Human Viruses

DNA Viruses: Poxviridae

202 Poxviridae

DNA Viruses: Herpesviridae

203 Introduction to Herpesviridae

204 Herpes Simplex Virus

205 Varicella-Zoster Virus

206 Cytomegalovirus

207 Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 (Roseola, Exanthem Subitum)

208 Epstein-Barr Virus (Mononucleosis and Lymphoproliferative Disorders)

209 Human Herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi Sarcoma- Associated Herpesvirus)

DNA Viruses: Adenoviridae

210 Adenoviruses

DNA Viruses: Papovaviridae

211 Human Papillomaviruses

212 BK, JC, and Other Human Polyomaviruses

DNA Viruses: Hepadnaviridae

213 Hepatitis B and Hepatitis D Viruses

DNA Viruses: Parvoviridae

214 Human Parvoviruses

RNA Viruses: Reoviridae

215 Coltivirus (Colorado Tick Fever

216 Rotaviruses

RNA Viruses: Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Bunyaviridae

217 Togaviridae: Alphaviruses

218 Flaviviruses

219 Bunyaviruses

220 Hepatitis C Virus

221 Rubella Virus

RNA Viruses: Coronaviridae

222 Human Coronaviruses

RNA Viruses: Paramyxoviridae

223 Parainfluenza Viruses

224 Mumps Virus

225 Respiratory Syncytial Virus

226 Human Metapneumovirus

227 Rubeola Virus (Measles and Subacute

Sclerosing Panencephalitis)

RNA Viruses: Rhabdoviridae

228 Rabies Virus

RNA Viruses: Orthomyxoviridae

229 Influenza Viruses

RNA Viruses: Arenaviridae and Filoviridae

230 Filoviruses and Arenaviruses

RNA Viruses: Retroviridae

231 Introduction to Retroviridae

232 Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Viruses

233 Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

RNA Viruses: Picornaviridae

234 Introduction to Picornaviridae

235 Polioviruses

236 Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses

237 Hepatitis A Virus

238 Rhinoviruses

RNA Viruses: Caliciviridae

239 Caliciviruses

240 Astroviruses

241 Hepatitis E Virus and Other Newly Identified Viruses

C. Fungi

242 Classification of Fungi

243 Candida Species

244 Aspergillus Species

245 Agents of Hyalohyphomycosis and Phaeohyphomycosis

246 Agents of Mucormycosis (Zygomycosis)

247 Malassezia Species

248 Sporothrix schenckii (Sporotrichosis)

249 Cryptococcus Species

250 Histoplasma capsulatum (Histoplasmosis)

251 Pneumocystis jirovecii

252 Blastomyces dermatitidis (Blastomycosis)

253 Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii (Coccidiomycosis)

254 Dermatophytes and Other Superficial Fungi

255 Agents of Eumycotic Mycetoma: Pseudallescheria boydii (Anamorph Scedosporium apiospermum)

D. Human Parasites and Vectors

256 Classification of Parasites

257 Ectoparasites (Lice and Scabies)

Protozoa

258 Babesia Species (Babesiosis)

259 Balantidium coli

260 Blastocystis Species

261 Cryptosporidium Species

262 Endolimax nana

263 Entamoeba histolytica (Amebiasis)

264 Other Entamoeba, Amebas, and Intestinal Flagellates

265 Giardia intestinalis (Giardiasis)

266 Cystoisospora (Isospora) and Cyclospora Species

267 Leishmania Species (Leishmaniasis)

268 Microsporidia

269 Naegleria fowleri

270 Acanthamoeba Species

271 Plasmodium Species (Malaria)

272 Sarcocystis Species

273 Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis)

274 Trichomonas vaginalis

275 Trypanosoma Species (Trypanosomiasis)

Nematodes

276 Intestinal Nematodes

277 Tissue Nematodes

278 Blood and Tissue Nematodes (Filarial Worms)

Cestodes

279 Diphyllobothrium, Dipylidium, and Hymenolepis Species

280 Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata (Taeniasis and Cysticercosis)

281 Echinococcus Species (Agents of Cystic, Alveolar, and Polycystic Echinococcosis)

282 Taenia (Multiceps) multiceps and Taenia serialis (Coenurosis)

Trematodes

283 Intestinal Trematodes

284 Clonorchis, Opisthorchis, Fasciola, and Paragonimus Species

285 Blood Trematodes (Schistosomiasis)

Part IV: Laboratory Diagnosis and Therapy of Infectious Diseases

A. The Clinician and the Laboratory

286 Laboratory Diagnosis of Infection

Due to Bacteria, Fungi, Parasites, and Rickettsiae

287 Laboratory Diagnosis of Infection Due to Viruses, Chlamydia, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasma

288 Laboratory Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

B. Anti-Infective Therapy

289 Principles of Anti-Infective Therapy

290 Mechanisms and Detection of Antibiotic Resistance

291 Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Basis of Optimal Antibiotic Therapy

292 Antimicrobial Agents

293 Antifungal Agents

294 Topical Antimicrobial Agents

295 Antiviral Agents

296 Antiparasitic Agents