The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations - Urinary System, Volume 5, 2nd Edition

The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations - Urinary System

2nd Edition Volume 5

By Christopher R Kelly, Christopher R. Kelly, MD Postdoctoral Residency Fellow Department of Medicine NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital / Columbia University Medical Center and Jaime Landman, Jaime Landman, Professor of Urology and Radiology. Chairman, Department of Urology, University of California Irvine


Section 1 - ANATOMY OF THE URINARY TRACT

    1. Kidney: Position and Relations (Anterior View)
    2. Kidney: Position and Relations (Posterior View)
    3. Kidney: Position and Relations (Transverse Sections)
    4. Kidney: Gross Structure
    5. Renal Fascia
    6. Ureters: Position, Relations, Gross Structure
    7. Bladder: Position, Relations, Gross Structure (Male)
    8. Bladder: Position, Relations, Gross Structure (Female)
    9. Bladder: Position, Relations, Gross Structure (Coronal Cross-Section)
    10. Renal Vasculature: Renal Artery and Vein In Situ
    11. Renal Vasculature: Renal Artery Segmental Branches and Intrarenal Arteries
    12. Renal Vasculature: Variations in Renal Artery and Vein
    13. Vasculature of Ureters and Bladder
    14. Innervation of Kidneys, Ureters and Bladder
    15. Innervation Pathways of the Kidneys and Upper Ureter
    16. Innervation Pathways of the Ureter and Bladder
    17. Lymphatics of Urinary System
    18. Overview of the Nephron
    19. Renal Microvascualture
    20. Glomerulus: Structure and Histology
    21. Glomerulus Fine Structure
    22. Glomerulus: Electron Microscopy
    23. Proximal Tubule
    24. Thin Limb
    25. Distal Tubule
    26. Collecting Duct
    27. Renal Pelvis, Ureter, and Bladder

 

Section 2 - Normal and Abnormal Development

    1. Development of Kidney
    2. Development of Kidney: Nephron Formation
    3. Development of Bladder and Ureter: Formation of the Cloaca
    4. Development of Bladder and Ureter: Septation, Incorporation of Ureters, and Maturation
    5. Renal Ascent and Ectopia: Normal Renal Ascent and Pelvic Kidney
    6. Renal Ascent and Ectopia: Thoracic and Crossed Ectopic Kidney
    7. Renal Rotation and Malrotation
    8. Anomalies in Number of Kidneys: Bilateral Renal Agenesis
    9. Anomalies in Number of Kidneys: Unilateral Renal Agenesis
    10. Anomalies in Number of Kidneys: Supernumerary Kidney
    11. Renal Fusion
    12. Renal Dysplasia
    13. Renal Hypoplasia
    14. Simple Cysts
    15. Polycystic Kidney Disease: Gross Appearance
    16. Polycystic Kidney Disease: Radiographic Findings
    17. Medullary Sponge Kidney
    18. Nephronophthisis / Medullary Cystic Kidney Disease Complex
    19. Retrocaval Ureter: Radiographic Findings and Laparoscopic Repair
    20. Retrocaval Ureter: Normal Development of the Inferior Vena Cava
    21. Vesicoureteral Reflux: Mechanism and Grading
    22. Vesicoureteral Reflux: Voiding Cystourethrograms
    23. Ureteral Duplication: Complete
    24. Ureteral Duplication: Incomplete
    25. Ectopic Ureter
    26. Ureterocele: Gross and Fine Appearance
    27. Ureterocele: Radiographic Findings
    28. Prune Belly Syndrome: Appearance of Abdominal Wall
    29. Prune Belly Syndrome: Appearance of Kidneys, Ureters, and Bladder
    30. Epispadias Exstrophy Complex: Epispadias
    31. Epispadias Exstrophy Complex: Bladder Exstrophy
    32. Bladder Duplication and Septation
    33. Anomalies of the Urachus
    34. Posterior Urethral Valves: Gross Appearance
    35. Posterior Urethral Valves: Radiographic Findings

Section 3 - Physiology

    1. Basic Functions and Homeostasis
    2. Clearance and Renal Plasma Flow
    3. Glomerular Filtration Rate
    4. Glomerular Filtration Rate: Calculation
    5. Secretion and Reabsorption: Tubular Reabsorption and Saturation Kinetics
    6. Secretion and Reabsorption: Fractional Excretion (Clearance Ratios)
    7. Renal Handling of Sodium and Chloride: Nephron Sites of Sodium Reabsorption
    8. Renal Handling of Sodium and Chloride: Response to Extracellular Fluid Contraction
    9. Renal Handling of Sodium and Chloride: Response to Extracellular Fluid Expansion
    10. Renal Handling of Potassium
    11. Renal Handling of Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium
    12. Countercurrent Multiplication: Model - Part 1
    13. Countercurrent Multiplication: Model - Part 2
    14. Countercurrent Multiplication: Models to Demonstrate Principle of Countercurrent Exchange System of Vasa Recta in Minimizing Dissipation of Medullary Osmotic Gradient
    15. Urine Concentration and Dilution: Long-Looped Nephron (ADH Present)
    16. Urine Concentration and Dilution: Long-Looped Nephron (ADH Absent)
    17. Antidiuretic Hormone
    18. Tubuloglomerular Feedback and Modulation of Renin Release
    19. Tubuloglomerular Feedback and Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
    20. Acid Base Balance: Roles of Chemical Buffers, Lungs, and Kidneys in Acid-Base Handling
    21. Acid Base Balance: Renal Bicarbonate Reabsorption
    22. Acid Base Balance: Renal Bicarbonate Synthesis and Proton Excretion
    23. Acid Base Balance: Acidosis and Alkalosis
    24. Additional Functions of Erythropoiesis and Vitamin D
    25. Renal Tubular Acidosis: Proximal
    26. Renal Tubular Acidosis: Classic Distal
    27. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: Diabetes Insipidus
    28. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: Major Causes and Symptoms

Section 4 - Renal Diseases

    1. Overview of Acute Kidney Injury: Causes
    2. Overview of Acute Kidney Injury: Possible Urine Findings
    3. Acute Tubular Necrosis: Causes, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Features
    4. Acute Tubular Necrosis: Histopathological Findings
    5. Overview of Nephrotic Syndrome: Pathophysiology
    6. Overview of Nephrotic Syndrome: Causes
    7. Overview of Nephrotic Syndrome: Presentation and Diagnosis
    8. Minimal Change Disease: Causes and Presentation
    9. Minimal Change Disease: Histopathology
    10. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: Causes, Clinical Features, and Histopathological Findings
    11. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: Histopathological Findings (Continued)
    12. Membranous Nephropathy: Causes and Clinical Features
    13. Membranous Nephropathy: Histopathological Findings
    14. Overview of Glomerulonephritis: Clinical Features and Histopathological Findings
    15. Overview of Glomerulonephritis: Histopathological Findings (Continued)
    16. IgA Nephropathy: Causes and Clinical Features
    17. IgA Nephropathy: Histopathological Findings
    18. IgA Nephropathy: Histopathological Findings (Continued)
    19. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis: Causes and Clinical Features
    20. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis: Histopathological Findings
    21. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis: Histopathological Findings (Continued)
    22. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: Causes, Features, and Assessment
    23. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: Classical Pathway of Complement Pathways
    24. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: Histopathological Findings
    25. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
    26. Hereditary Nephritis (Alport's) / Thin Basement Membrane Nephropathy: Pathophysiology and Clinical Features
    27. Hereditary Nephritis (Alport's) / Thin Basement Membrane Nephropathy: Electron Microscopy Findings
    28. Acute Interstitial Nephritis: Causes and Clinical Features
    29. Acute Interstitial Nephritis: Histopathological Findings
    30. Chronic Tubulointerstitial Nephritis and Analgesic Nephropathy
    31. Chronic Tubulointerstitial Nephritis: Histopathological Findings
    32. Thrombotic Microangiopathy: General Features
    33. Thrombotic Microangiopathy: Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome
    34. Thrombotic Microangiopathy: Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
    35. Renal Vein Thrombosis
    36. Renal Artery Stenosis: Pathophysiology of Renovascular Hypertension
    37. Renal Artery Stenosis: Causes
    38. Congestive Heart Failure: Types of Left Heart Failure and Effects on Renal Function
    39. Congestive Heart Failure: Effects of Left Heart Failure on Renal Blood Flow and Tubular Function
    40. Hepatorenal Syndrome: Proposed Pathophysiology
    41. Hepatorenal Syndrome: Symptoms and Diagnosis
    42. Chronic and Malignant Hypertension: Major Causes
    43. Chronic and Malignant Hypertension: Renal Histopathology (Chronic)
    44. Chronic and Malignant Hypertension: Renal Histopathology (Malignant)
    45. Diabetic Nephropathy: Diabetes Mellitus
    46. Diabetic Nephropathy
    47. Amyloidosis: Deposition Sites and Manifestations
    48. Amyloidosis: Histopathological Findings
    49. Lupus Nephritis: Diagnostic Criteria
    50. Lupus Nephritis: Renal Histopathology (Class I and II Lesions)
    51. Lupus Nephritis: Renal Histopathology (Class III and IV Lesions)
    52. Lupus Nephritis: Renal Histopathology (Class V Lesions)
    53. Myeloma Nephropathy: Pathophysiology and Clinical Findings
    54. Myeloma Nephropathy: Histopathological Findings
    55. HIV-Associated Nephropathy: Light Microscopy Findings
    56. HIV-Associated Nephropathy: Electron Microscopy Findings
    57. HIV-Associated Nephropathy: Mechanisms of Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy
    58. Preeclampsia: Clinical Definition and Potential Mechanism of Pathogenesis
    59. Preeclampsia: Renal Pathology
    60. Preeclampsia: HELLP Syndrome and Eclampsia
    61. Henoch Schonlein Purpura: Diagnostic Criteria
    62. Henoch Schonlein Purpura: Additional Clinical Features
    63. Fabry's Disease
    64. Cystinosis: Pathophysiology and the Renal Fanconi Syndrome
    65. Cystinosis: Extrarenal Manifestations
    66. Overview of Chronic Kidney Disease: Staging System and Major Causes
    67. Overview of Chronic Kidney Disease: Mechanism of Progression and Complications
    68. Overview of Chronic Kidney Disease: Uremia
    69. Overview of Chronic Kidney Disease: Normal Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism
    70. Overview of Chronic Kidney Disease: Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease

 

Section 5 - Urinary Tract Infections

    1. Cystitis: Risk Factors
    2. Cystitis: Common Symptoms and Tests
    3. Cystitis: Evaluation
    4. Cystitis: Treatment
    5. Pyelonephritis: Risk Factors and Major Findings
    6. Pyelonephritis: Pathology
    7. Bacteriuria Management of Asymptometic Bacteriuria
    8. Intrarenal and Perinephric Abscesses
    9. Tuberculosis: Infection and Extrapulmonary Spread
    10. Tuberculosis: Urinary Tract
    11. Schistosomiasis: Lifecycle of Schistosoma Haematobium
    12. Schistosomiasis: Effects of Chronic Schistosoma Haematobium Infection

 

Section 6 - Urinary Tract Obstructions

    1. Obstructive Uropathy: Etiology
    2. Obstructive Uropathy: Sequelae
    3. Urolithiasis: Formation of Renal Stones
    4. Urolithiasis: Major Sites of Renal Stone Impaction
    5. Urolithiasis: Appearance of Renal Stones
    6. Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction
    7. Ureteral Strictures

Section 7 - Traumatic Injuries

    1. Renal Injuries: Grading System and Renal Parencyhmal Injuries
    2. Renal Injuries: Renal Hilar Injuries
    3. Ureteral Injuries
    4. Bladder Injuries: Extraperitoneal Bladder Ruptures
    5. Bladder Injuries: Intraperitoneal Bladder Ruptures

Section 8 -Voiding Dysfunction

    1. Voiding dysfunction: Anatomy of Female Urinary Continence Mechanisms
    2. Voiding dysfunction : Neural Control of Bladder Function and Effects of Lesions
    3. Voiding dysfunction: Stress Urinary Incontinence
    4. Urodynamics: Equipment and Set-up for Urodynamics Studies
    5. Urodynamics: Example Urodynamics Recordings

Section 9 - Neoplasms

    1. Benign Renal Tumors: Papillary Adenoma and Oncocytoma
    2. Benign Renal Tumors: Angiomyolipoma
    3. Renal Cell Carcinoma: Risk Factors and Radiographic Findings
    4. Renal Cell Carcinoma: Gross Pathological Findings
    5. Renal Cell Carcinoma: Histopathological Findings
    6. Renal Cell Carcinoma: Staging System and Sites of Metastasis
    7. Wilms Tumor: Genetics, Presentation, and Radiographic Findings
    8. Wilms Tumor: Gross Appearance and Histopathological Findings
    9. Tumors of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter: Risk Factors and Radiographic Appearance
    10. Tumors of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter: Appearance (Ureteroscopic, Gross, and Microscopic) and Staging System
    11. Tumors of the Bladder: Risk Factors, Symptoms, and Physical Examination
    12. Tumors of the Bladder: Cystoscopic and Radiographic Appearance
    13. Tumors of the Bladder: Histopathological Findings and Staging System

 

Section 10 - Therapeutics

    1. Osmotic Diuretics
    2. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    3. Loop Diuretics
    4. Thiazide Diuretics
    5. Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
    6. Inhibitors of the Renin-Angiotensin System
    7. Renal Biopsy: Indications and Structure of Typical Spring-Loaded Needle
    8. Renal Biopsy: Procedure
    9. Hemodialysis, Peritoneal Dialysis, and Continuous Therapies: Hemodialysis
    10. Hemodialysis, Peritoneal Dialysis, and Continuous Therapies: Vascular Access for Hemodialysis
    11. Hemodialysis, Peritoneal Dialysis, and Continuous Therapies: Peritoneal Dialysis
    12. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy
    13. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Creation of Access Tract
    14. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Nephroscope and Sonotrode
    15. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Ultrasonic Lithotripsy of Large Stones
    16. Pyeloplasty / Endopyelotomy
    17. Renal Revascularization: Endovascular Therapies
    18. Renal Revascularization: Surgical Therapies
    19. Simple and Radical Nephrectomy: Open Nephrectomy (Incisions for Transperitoneal and Retroperitoneal Approaches)
    20. Simple and Radical Nephrectomy: Open Simple Nephrectomy (Flank Approach)
    21. Simple and Radical Nephrectomy: Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy (Transperitoneal Approach (Left-Sided))
    22. Partial Nephrectomy: Open Partial Nephrectomy (Retroperitoneal (Flank) Approach)
    23. Partial Nephrectomy: Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy (Transperitoneal Approach)
    24. Renal Ablation: Laparoscopic Cryoablation (Retroperitoneal Approach)
    25. Renal Ablation: Percutaneous Cryoablation
    26. Renal Transplantation: Recipient Operation
    27. Renal Transplantation: Mechanisms of Action of Immunosuppressive Medications
    28. Renal Transplantation: Causes of Graft Dysfunction in Immediate Post-Operative Period
    29. Renal Transplantation: Causes of Graft Dysfunction in Early Post-Transplant Period
    30. Renal Transplantation: Acute Rejection (Histopathological Findings)
    31. Renal Transplantation: Calcineurin Inhibitor Nephrotoxicity (Histopathological Findings)
    32. Renal Transplantation: Causes of Graft Dysfunction in Late Post-Transplant Period
    33. Ureteroscopy: Device Design and Deployment
    34. Ureteroscopy: Stone Fragmentation and Extraction
    35. Ureter Reimplantation
    36. Ureteral Reconstruction
    37. Cystoscopy: Cystoscope Design
    38. Cystoscopy: Cystoscopic Views
    39. Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor: Equipment and Procedure
    40. Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor: Procedure (Continued)