Spine Surgery, 2-Volume Set, Techniques, Complication Avoidance and Management (Expert Consult - Online and Print), 3rd Edition

Spine Surgery, 2-Volume Set

3rd Edition Techniques, Complication Avoidance and Management (Expert Consult - Online and Print)

By Edward C. Benzel, MD, Chairman, Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA


SECTION 1 - HISTORY

1 - History

2 - History of Spine Instrumentation - The Modern Era

3 - History of Spine Biomechanics

SECTION 2 - THE FUNDAMENTALS

4 - Differential Diagnosis of Surgical Disorders of the Spine

5 - Functional Anatomy of the Spine

6 - Muscular Support of the Spine

7 - Anatomy and Physiology of Congenital Spinal Lesions

8 - Anatomy and Pathophysiology of Acquired Spinal Disorders

9 - Neural Injury at the Molecular Level

10 - Pathophysiology of Cervical Myelopathy: Biomechanics and Deformative Stress

11 - Anatomy of Nerve Root Compression, Nerve Root Tethering, and Spinal Instability

12 - Physical and Neurological Examination

13 - Intervertebral Disc Process of Degeneration: Physiology & Pathophysiology

14 - Definition and Assessment of Dysfunctional Segmented Motion

15 - Bone Modeling and Remodeling

16 - The Biology of Spine Fusion

17 - Spine Fusion: Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Bone-Bone Interface

18 - Bone Void Fillers: Bone and Bone Substitutes

19 - Osteointegration

20 - Materials and Material Properties

21 - Biomechanical Testing

22 - Computational Modeling of the Spine

23 - Intervertebral Disc: Anatomy, Physiology, and Aging

24 - Intradiscal Pressure

25 - Fundamentals of Spine Surgery

26 - Preoperative and Surgical Planning for Avoiding Complications

27 - Patient Selection for Spine Surgery

28 - Masqueraders of Spinal Pathology

29 - Data Management

30 - Practical Anatomy and Fundamental Biomechanics

31 - Applied Anatomy of the Cervical Spine

32 - Applied Anatomy of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

SECTION 3 - EXTRASPINAL Anatomy and Surgical Approaches and Exposures of the Vertebral Column

33 - Occipital-Cervical Region

34 - The Cervical Spine and Cervicothoracic Junction

35 - Extraspinal Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to Thoracic Spnie

36 - The Lumbar and Sacral Spine

SECTION 4 - Surgical Procedures

4.1 DECOMPRESSION AND ARTHRODESIS OF THE CERVICAL SPINE

37 - Upper Cervical and Craniocervical Decompression

38 - Upper Cervical and Occipitocervical Arthrodesis

39 - Ventral and Ventrolateral Subaxial Decompression

40 - Single and Multiple-Single Interbody Fusion Techniques

41 - Threaded Cylindrical Interbody Cage Fixation for Cervical Spondylosis and OPLL

42 - Cervical Interbody Strut Techniques

43 - Interbody Cages

44 - Cervical Laminectomy and Laminoforaminotomy

45 - Cervical Skip Corpectomy

46 - Cervical Laminoplasty

47 - Interspinous, Laminar, and Facet Fusion

48 - Combined Ventral-Dorsal Surgery

49 - Percutaneous and Minimally Invasive Approaches to Decompression & Arthrodesis of the Cervical Spine

4.2 DECOMPRESSION AND ARTHRODESIS OF THE THORACIC AND LUMBAR SPINE

50 - Ventral and Ventrolateral Spine Decompression and Fusion

51 - The Lateral Extracavitary Approach to the Thoracolumbar Spine

52 - Retropleural Approach to the Ventral Thoracic and Thoracolumbar Spine

53 - Laminotomy, Laminectomy, Laminoplasty, and Foraminotomy

54 - Posterior and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

55 - Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

56 - Lumbar Interbody Cages

57 - Dorsal and Lateral Thoracic and Lumbar Fusion

58 - Indication for Spine Fusion for Axial Pain

59 - The Black Disc: Diagnosis and Treatment of Discogenic Back Pain

60 - Percutaneous and Minimally Invasive Approahes to Decompression and Arthodesis of the Thoraco- Lumbar Spine

61 - Thoracoscopic Corpectomy and Reconstruction

4.3 TRAUMA

62 - Classification of Thoracolumbar Spine Fractures

63 - Trauma Surgery: Occipito-Cervical Junction

64 - Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries

65 - Trauma Surgery: Cervical Spine

66 - Trauma Surgery: Thoracic and Thoracolumbar Junction

67 - Trauma Surgery: Lumbar and Sacral Fractures

68 - Surgical Indications in Spine Trauma

69 - Non-Operative Management and Treatment of Spinal Injuries

70 - Medical Management of Adult and Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury

71 - Spinal Injuries in Sports

72 - Emerging Therapies for Spinal Cord Injury

73 - Penetrating Spinal Cord Injuries

74 - Timing of Surgery Following Spinal Cord Injury

75 - Evaluation of the Cervical Spine After Trauma

4.4 DISCECTOMY

76 - Cervical Discectomy

77 - Thoracic Discectomy

78 - Lumbar Discectomy

79 - Management of Soft Cervical Disc Herniation: Controversies and Complication Avoidance

80 - Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

81 - Minimally Access and Percutaneous Lumbar Discectomy

4.5 ARTHRITIDES AND RELATED DISORDERS

82 - Cervical Spondylosis

83 - Thoracic and Lumbar Spondylosis

84 - Spondylolisthesis: Sagittal Plane Lumbar Spine Deformity Correction

85 - Degenerative Rotatory Scoliosis: Three-Dimensional Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Deformity Correction

86 - Rheumatoid Arthritis

87 - Ankylosing Spondylitis and Related Disorders

88 - Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

89 - Scheuermann?s Disease

90 - Spinal Deformity: Measuring, Defining, and Classifying

4.6 DEFORMITY CORRECTION PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES

91 - Spine Deformity and Correction: The Fundamentals

92 - Craniocervical Junction Deformities

93 - Subaxial Cervical Deformities

94 - Cervical Facet Dislocations: A Ventral Surgical Strategy for Decompression, Reduction, and Stabilization

95 - Kyphotic Cervical Deformity

96 - Scoliotic Cervical Deformity

97 - Adult Thoracic and Lumbar Deformities

98 - An Approach for Treatment of Complex Adult Spinal Deformity

99 - Deformity Surgery for Ankylosing Spondylitis

100 - Pediatric Spinal Deformities and Deformity Correction

4.7 TUMORS, VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS, AND RELATED LESIONS

101 - Intramedullary Spinal Cord Lesions

102 - Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Lesions

103 - Spinal Intradural Vascular Malformations

104 - Spinal Dural Vascular Malformations

105 - Cauda Equina Syndrome

106 - Primary Bony Spinal Lesions

107 - Spondylectomy for Spinal Tumors

108 - Prognostic Factors, Surgical Outcomes, and Guidelines for Managing Metastatic Spinal Cancer

109 - Staging, Classification, and Oncologic Approaches for Metastic Tumors Involving the Spine

110 - Metabolic Bone Disease

111 - Tumors at the Foramen Magnum: Regional Challenges

112 - Cervio-Thoracic Junction Tumors: Regional Challenges

113 - Thoracic and Thoracolumbar Spinal Tumors: Regional Challenges

114 - Sacral Tumors: Regional Challenges

115 - Tarlov Cysts

4.8 PEDIATRIC SPINAL SURGERY AND RELATED CONDITIONS

116 - Occult Spinal Dysraphism and the Tethered Spinal Cord

117 - Myelomeningocele and Associated Anomalies

118 - Anterior Sacral Meningocele

119 - Chiari Malformation and Syringomyelia

120 - Chiari Malformation, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and Fibromyalgia: A Paradigm for Care

4.9 ADJUNCTIVE SURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

121 - Omental Transposistion and Spine Surgery: Emphasis on Revascularization and Scar Prevention

122 - Wound Closure

123 - Bone Graft Harvesting

124 - Vascularized Bone Grafts in Spinal Surgery

125 - Pain and Spasticity

126 - Minimally Invasive Spinal Decompression and Stabilization Techniques I

127 - Minimally Invasive Spinal Decompression & Stabilization Techniques II: Thoracic and Lumbar Endoscopic Approaches

128 - Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty

129 - The Obese Patient

130 - Spine Surgery - Smoking and the Spine

131 - The Geriatric Patient

132 - Surgery of the Sympathetic Nervous System

133 - Arachnoiditis and Syringomyelia

134 - Post-traumatic and Idiopathic Syringomyelia

135 - Complications of Peripheral Nerve Surgery

SECTION 5 - Spinal Instrumentation

136 - Basic Biomechanically Relevant Anatomy

137 - Spinal Implant Attributes: Distraction, Compression, and Three-Point Bending

138 - Implant Attributes: Cantilever Beam Fixation

139 - Cervical Spine Fusion using Dynamic Ventral Cervical Plating

140 - Cervical Spine Construct Design

141 - Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Construct Design

142 - Upper Cervical Screw Fixation Techniques

143 - High Cervical and Occipitocervical Plate, Rod, Wire, and Bone Techniques

144 - Ventral Subaxial Cervical Fixation Techniques

145 - Subsidence and Dynamic Cervical Spine Stabilization

146 - Ventral and Lateral Thoracic and Lumbar Fixation Techniques

147 - Dorsal Subaxial Cervical Instrumentation Techniques

148 - Dorsal Thoracic and Lumbar Screw Fixation and Pedicle Fixation Techniques

149 - Dorsal Thoracic and Lumbar Simple Hook-Rod, Wire and Wire-Rod Techniques

150 - Dorsal Thoracic and Lumbar Universal Spinal Instrumentation Techniques

151 - Dorsal Thoracic and Lumbar Combined and Complex Techniques

152 - Complex Lumbosacropelvic Fixation Techniques

153 - Iatrogenic Spine Destabilization

154 - Lumbar Facet Fixation Techniques

155 - Para-coccygeal Trans-sacral Approach to the Lumbo-Sacral Junction for Interbody Fusion and Stabilization

SECTION 6 - MOTION PRESERVATION STRATEGIES

156 - To Not Operate

157 - Motion Sparing, Non-Implant Surgery: (A) Cervical Spine; (B) Lumbar Spine

158 - Adjacent Segment Degeneration & Disease of the Cervical and Lumbar Spine

159 - Biomechanics of Motion Preservation Techniques

160 - Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

161 - Lumbar Total Disc Arthroplasty

162 - Second Generation Total Disc Arthroplasty

163 - Nuclear Replacement

164 - Dorsal Dynamic Spine Stabilization

165 - Artificial Facet Joint

166 - Interspinous Bumpers

167 - Total Disc Arthroplasty - Associated Complications

168 - Explant Analysis of Wear, Degradation, and Fatigue in Motion Preserving Spinal Implants

SECTION 7 - ADJUNCTS TO SURGERY

169 - Surgical Incisions, Positioning, and Retraction

170 - Blood Loss

171 - Imaging: Trauma

172 - Degenerative Disease and Infection: Role of Imaging

173 - Overview of Imaging Procedures Available for Spinal Diagnosis

174 - Postoperative Imaging

175 - Intraoperative Imaging

176 - Stereotactic Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Spinal Metastases

177 - Somatosensory Evoked Potential for Spinal Surgery

178 - Electrodiagnostic Studies

179 - Intraoperative Nonparalytic Monitoring

SECTION 8 - NONSURGICAL MANAGEMENT

180 - Anesthesia

181 - Advances in Anesthesia for Spine Surgery and the Prevention of Complications

182 - Perioperative Management

183 - Medical Management of the Patient with Acute Spinal Cord Injury

184 - Nutritional Care of the Spinal Cord Injured Patient

185 - Skin and Wound Care

186 - Spinal Traction

187 - Orthoses: Complication Prevention and Management

188 - Medical Management of Neck and Low Back Pain

189 - Non-Operative Management of Neck and Back Pain

190 - Psychosocial Aspects and Work-related Issues Regarding Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

191 - Interventional Non-Operative Management of Neck and Back Pain

192 - Intradiscal Electrothermy

SECTION 9 - SPECIFIC COMPLICATIONS: AVOIDANCE AND MANAGEMENT

193 - Neurologic Complications of Common Spinal Operations

194 - Vascular and Soft-Tissue Complications

195 - Postoperative Spinal Deformities

196 - Arachnoiditis

197 - Spine Infection

198 - The Prevention of Operative Infections: An Evidence-based Approach

199 - Medical Complications

200 - Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistula and Pseudomeningocele After Spine Surgery

201 - Nonunion

202 - Spinal Reoperations

203 - Intraoperative Crisis Management in Spine Surgery: What to do When Things Go Bad

 

**THE FOLLOWING SECTIONS WILL ONLY BE ON-LINE AND NOT IN THE PRINTED TEXT**

SECTION 10 - POSTSCRIPT

204 - Ethical and Mediocolegal Aspects of Spinal Surgery

205 - Conflicts of Interest and Conflict Management

206 - Economics and Practice Management

207 - The Rationale for Practice Hygiene: Coding, Reimbursement, and Nomenclature

208 - Education of the Spine Surgeons

209 - Education and Knowledge-Base Acquisition and Retention

210 - The Art of the Clinical Trial

211 - The Meaningful Retrospective Analysis

212 - Art and Science of Guideline Formation

SECTION 11 - CONTROVERSIES

213 - Anterior Cervical Corpectomy and Fusion: To Plate or Not To Plate

To Not Plate

To Plate

214 - Cervical Spondylosis with Minimal Myelopathy: To Decompress or Not To Decompress

To Decompress

Not To Decompress

215 - Bilateral Locked Cervical Facets with Incomplete Myelopathy: Open Versus Closed Reduction

Open Reduction

Closed Reduction

216 - Cervical Spine Fusion: Allograft Versus Autograft

Argument for Allograft

Argument for Autograft

217 - Thoracic and Thoracolumbar Spine Fractures with Ventral Mass Lesion: Ventral Versus Dorsal

Operation

Ventral Decompression and Stabilization

Dorsal Decompression and Stabilization

218 - Reoperation for Failed Spinal Fusion: Augmentation of Fusion with Spinal Stimulation

Argument Against Bone Growth Stimulator

Argument for Bone Growth Stimulator

219 - Management of a Patient with Thoracolumbar Fracture with Complete Myelopathy and a 40 Kyphotic

Deformity: Operative or Recumbent Management

Operative Management

Recumbent Management

220 - Management of Symptomatic Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression

Vertebroplasty

Kyphoplasty

221 - Management of Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

Cervical Laminoplasty - Open Door

Laminoplasty - French Door

Laminectomy

Ventral Approach: Smith-Robinson Approach

Ventral Approach: Open Window Corpectomy

222 - Spondylotic Myelopathy with Cervical Kyphotic Deformity

Ventral Approach

Dorsal Approach

Combined Ventral and Dorsal Approach

223 - Management of Cervical Disc Herniation

Dorsal Laminoforaminotomy Plus Discectomy

Ventral Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Allograft or BMP and Plating

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Autograft and Without Plating

Anterior Cervical Discectomy with Artificial Disc

224 - Management of a 45-year old with Mechanical Low Back Pain and with or without L4/5 Spondylolisthesis and No Neurological Findings

Non-Operative Management

Spinal Fusion - Ventral Approach

Spinal Fusion - Dorsal Approach

Spinal Fusion - Dorsal & Ventral Approach

Total Disc Arthroplasty

Nuclear Replacement

225 - Management of Traumatic Unilateral Jumped Cervical Facet Joint Without Myelopathy

Closed Traction Reduction Then Surgery

Open Reduction

226 - Management of Traumatic Bilateral Jumped Cervical Facet Joints in a Patient with Incomplete Myelopathy

Closed Traction Reduction Then Surgery

Open Reduction

227 - Management of Traumatic Bilateral Jumped Cervical Facet Joints in a Patient with Complete Myelopathy

Closed Traction Reduction Then Surgery

Open Reduction

228 - Timing of Decompression Surgery for Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in a Patient with an Incomplete Myelopathy

Postural Non-Operative Management

Emergent Surgery

Non-Emergent Surgery

229 - Timing of Decompression Surgery for Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in a Patient with Complete Myelopathy

Postural Non-Operative Management

Emergent Surgery

Non-Emergent Surgery

230 - Medical Management of Acute Spinal Cord Injury

Administration of High-Dose Steroids

No Administration of Steroids

231 - Traumatic Central Cord Syndrome

Early Surgery

Delayed Surgery

232 - Cervical Disc Herniation with Radiculopathy

Anterior Cervical Discectomy with Interbody Fusion

Anterior Cervical Discectomy with Interbody Fusion with Plating

Anterior Cervical Discectomy with Artificial Disc Spacer

Anterior Cervical Discectomy without Fusion

(management of cervical disc herniation & cervical disc herniation with radiculopathy)

Laminoforaminotomy

233 - Traumatic Assymtomatic Vertebral Artery Injury Secondary to Facet Fracture Dislocation

Do Nothing

Endovascular Management

Medical (anticoagulation) Management

234 - Lumbar Fusion versus Total Disc Arthroplasty for Mechanical Low Back Pain

Fusion

Total Disc Arthroplasty