The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations: Respiratory System, Volume 3, 2nd Edition

The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations: Respiratory System

2nd Edition Volume 3

By David Kaminsky, MD, Associate Professor, Fletcher Allen Health Care, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT


Section 1 Anatomy and embryology

  1. Respiratory System
  2. Bony Thorax
  3. Rib Characteristics and Costovertebral Articulations
  4. Anterior Thoracic Wall
  5. Anterior Thoracic Wall (Continued)
  6. Anterior Thoracic Wall: Internal View
  7. Dorsal Aspect of Thorax
  8. Dorsal Aspect of Thorax: Posterior and Lateral Views
  9. Course and Relations of Intercostal Nerves and Arteries
  10. Diaphragm: Viewed from Above
  11. Topography of Lungs: Anterior View
  12. Topography of Lungs: Posterior View
  13. Medial Surface of Lungs
  14. Bronchopulmonary Segments
  15. Bronchopulmonary Segments in Relationship to Ribs
  16. Relations of Trachea and Main Bronchi
  17. Bronchial Arteries
  18. Mediastinum: Right Lateral View
  19. Mediastinum: Left Lateral View
  20. Innervation of Lungs and Tracheobronchial Tree
  21. Structure of Trachea and Major Bronchi
  22. Intrapulmonary Airways
  23. Structure of Bronchi and Bronchioles - Light Microscopy
  24. Ultrastructure of Tracheal, Bronchial, and Bronchiolar Epithelium
  25. Bronchial Submucosal Glands
  26. Intrapulmonary Blood Circulation
  27. Fine Structure of Alveolar Capillary Unit:  Ultrastructure of Pulmonary Alveoli and Capillaries
  28. Fine Structure of Alveolar Capillary Unit (Continued): Type II Alveolar Cell and Surface-Active Layer
  29. Fine Structure of Alveolar Capillary Unit (Continued): Pulmonary Vascular Endothelium
  30. Lymphatic Drainage of the Lungs and Pleura
  31. Lymphatic Drainage of the Lungs and Pleura: Distribution of Lymphatics
  32. Pulmonary Immunology; Lymphocytes, Mast cells, Eosinophils, Neutrophils

Development of Lower Respiratory System

1-33 Developing Respiratory Tract and Pharynx

1-34 Respiratory System at 5 to 6 Weeks

1-35 Respiratory System At 6 to 7 Weeks

1-36 Larynx, Traceobronchial Tree, and Lungs at 7 to 10 Weeks

1-37 Sagittal Section At 6 to 7 Weeks

1-38 Transverse Section At 5 to 8 Weeks

1-39 Diaphragm at 5 to 6 Weeks

1-40 Terminal Air Tube

1-41 Alveolar-Capillary Relationships At Age 8 Years

1-42 Surfactant Effects

1-43 Physiology of the Perinatal Pulmonary Circulation

Section 2 physiology

Pulmonary Mechanics and Gas Exchange 2-1 - 2-21

    1. Muscles of Respiration
    2. Spirometry: Lung Volume and Measurement
    3. Determination of Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
    4. Forces During Quiet Breathing
    5. Measurement of Elastic Properties of Lung
    6. Surface Forces In Lung
    7. Elastic Properties of Respiratory System: Lung and Chest Wall
    8. Distribution of Airway Resistance
    9. Patterns of Airflow
    10. Expiratory Flow
    11. Forced Expiratory Vital Capacity Maneuver
    12. Work of Breathing
    13. Pleural Pressure Gradient and Closing Volume
    14. Distribution of Pulmonary Blood Flow
    15. Pulmonary Vascular Resistance
    16. Pathways and Transfers of O2 and CO2
    17. Blood Gas Relationships During Normal Ventilation and Alveolar Hypoventilation
    18. Ventilation - Perfusion Relationships
    19. Shunts
    20. Oxygen Transport
    21. Role of Lungs and Kidneys in Regulation of Acid-Base Balance

2-22 Response to Oxidant Injury

Lung Metabolism

2-23 Inactivation of Circulating Vasoactive Substances

2-24 Activation of Circulating Precursors of Vasoactive Substances

Control and Disorders of Respiration

2-25 Chemical Control of Respiration (Feedback Mechanism)

2-26 Neural Control of Breathing

2-27 Respiraotry Response to Exercise

2-28 Effects of High Altitude on Respiraotry Mechanism

2-29 Hyperventilation and Hypoventilation

2-30 Periodic Breathing (Cheyne-Stokes)

2-31 Sites of Pathologic Disturbances in Control of Breathing

 

Section 3

Diagnostic Procedures

3-1 - 3-3 Tests of Pulmonary Function

Radiologic Examination of the Lungs

3-4 Normal Posterior-Anterior (PA) and Lateral Views of Chest

3-5 Lateral Decubitus View

3-6 Technique of Helical Computerized Tomography (CT)

3-7 Right Bronchial Tree as Revealed by Bronchograms

3-8 Left Bronchial Tree as Revealed by Bronchograms

3-9 Pulmonary Angiography

3-10 Images from a PET-CT Scanner

3-11 Patterns of Lobar Collapse: Right Lung (After Lubert and Krause)

3-12 Patterns of Lobar Collapse: Left Lung (After Lubert and Krause)

3-13 Aveolar Versus Interstitial Disease

3-14 Distribution of Pulmonary Nodules

3-15 Aveolar Disease

3-16 Radiograph Consolidation Patterns of Each Segment of Lungs (AP Views)

3-17 Solitary Pulmonary Nodule

3-18 Airway and Pleural Diseases

3-19 Abnormalities of the chest Wall and Mediastinum

3-20 Exhaled breath analysis

Endoscopic Procedures

3-21 Flexible Bronchoscopy

3-22 Bronchoscopic Views

3-23 Nomenclature for Peripheral Bronchi

3-24 Rigid Bronchoscopy

3-25 Endobronchial Ultrasound

3-26 Mediastinotomy and Mediastinoscopy

 

Section 4

Diseases and Pathology

Congenital Lung Disease

4-1 Congenital Deformities of Thoracic Cage

4-2 Pathology of Kyphoscoliosis

4-3 Pulmonary Function in Kyphoscoliosis

4-4 Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

4-5 Tracheoesophageal Fistulas and Tracheal Anomalies

4-6 Pulmonary Agenesis, Aplasia and Hypoplasia

4-7 Congenital lung cysts

4-8 Pulmonary Sequestration

4-9 Congenital Lobar Emphysema

4-10 Chronic Cough

Laryngeal Disorders

4-11 Common Laryngeal Lesions

4-12 Laryngeal Granuloma and Tracheal Stenosis

4-13 Vocal Cord Dysfunctions

Bronchial Asthma

4-14 Allergic Asthma: Clinical Features

4-15 Non-Allergic Asthma: Clinical Features

4-16 Common Precipitating Factors in Etiology of Bronchial Asthma

4-17 Variable Airflow Obstruction and Airway Hyperresponsiveness

4-18 Sputum in Bronchial Asthma

4-19 Skin Testing for Allergy

4-20 Representative Differential Diagnosis of Bronchial Asthma

4-21 Blood Gas and pH Relationships

4-22 Airway Pathophysiology in Asthma

4-23 Mechanism of Type 1 (Immediate) Hypersensitivity

4-24 Pathology of Severe Asthma

4-25 General Management Principles for Allergic Asthma

4-26 Mechanism of Asthma Medications

4-27 Emergency Department Management of Asthma

4-28 Interrelationship of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

4-29 Emphysema

4-30 Chronic Bronchitis

4-31 Mixed Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

4-32 Cor Pulmonale Due To COPD

4-33 Chronic Obstructive Pulomary Disease

4-34 Anatomic Distribution of Emphysema

4-35 Centriacinar (Centrilobular) Emphysema

4-36 Panacinar (Panlobular) Emphysema

4-37 COPD: Inflammation

4-38 COPD: Protease-Antiprotease Imbalances

4-39 Pulmonary Function in Obstructive Disease

4-40 Pathophysiology of Emphysema

4-41 High Resolution CT Scan of Lungs in COPD

4-42 Summary of COPD Treatment Guidelines

Bronchiectasis

4-43 Bilateral Severe Bronchiectasis

4-44 Localized Bronchiectasis 

Cystic Fibrosis

4-45 Pathophysiology and Clinical Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

4-46 Radiographic and Gross Anatomical Findings of the Lung Cystic Fibrosis

4-47 Cystic Fibrosis: Clinical Aspects

Lung Cancer Overview

4-48 Classification of Bronchogenic Carcinoma

4-49 Lung Cancer Staging

4-50 Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

4-51 Adenocarcinoma of the Lung

4-52 Large Cell Carcinomas of the Lung

4-53 Small Cell Carcinomas of the Lung

4-54 Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

4-55 Pancoast?s Tumor and Syndrome

Paraneoplastic Manifestations of Lung Cancer

4-56 Endocrine Manifestations of Lung Cancer

4-57 Neuromuscular and Connective Tissue Manifestations of Lung Cancer

4-58 Other Neoplasms of the Lung

4-59 Benign Tumors of Lung

4-60 Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

4-61 Mediastinal Tumors: Anterior Mediastinum

4-62 Middle-Posterior and Paravertebral Mediastinum

4-63 Pulmonary Metastases

Pneumonia

4-64 Overview of Pneumonia

4-65 Pneumococcal Pneumonia

4-66 Pneumococcal Pneumonia (Continued)

Atypical Pathogen Pneumonia

4-67 Mycoplasmal Pneumonia

4-68 Chlamydophila Psittaci Pneumonia

4-69 Legionella Pneumonia

4-70 Staphylococcus Aureus Pneumonia

4-71 Hemophilus Influenzae Pneumonia

4-72 Gram -Negative Bacterial Pneumonia

Viral Community-Acquired Pneumonia 

4-73 Influenza Virus and its Epidemiology

4-74 Influenzal Pneumonia

4-75 Varicella Pneumonia

4-76 Cytomegalovirus Penumonia

4-77 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

4-78 Lung Abscess

4-79 Lung Abscess (Continued)

4-80 Overviews of HCAP, HAP and VAP

4-81 Overviews of HCAP, HAP and VAP (Continued)

4-82 Pneumonia in the Compromised Host

4-83 Pneumonia in the Compromised Host (Continued)

4-84 Actinomycosis

4-85 Nocardiosis

4-86 Histoplasmosis

4-87 Histoplasmosis (Continued)

4-88 Coccidioidomycosis

4-89 Blastomycosis

4-90 Paracoccidioidomycosis

4-91 Cryptococcosis (Torulosis)

4-92 Aspergillosis

Tuberculosis

4-93 Dissemination of Tuberculosis

4-94 Evolution of Tubercle

4-95 Initial (Primary) Tuberculosis Complex

4-96 Progressive Pathology

4-97 Extensive Cavitary Disease

4-98 Miliary Tuberculosis

4-99 Tuberculin Testing

4-100 Sputum Examination

4-101 Sputum Culture

4-102 Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease

Lung Diseases Caused by the Inhalation of Particles and Fumes

4-103 Overview of Inhalation Diseases

4-104 Silicosis

4-105 Silicosis (Continued)

4-106 Coal Worker?s Pneumoconiosis

4-107 Asbestosis and Asbestos-Related Diseases

4-108 Asbestosis and Asbestos-Related Diseases (Continued)

4-109 Beryllium

4-110 Pneumoconiosis Caused by Various Minerals and Mixed Dusts

4-111 Pneumoconiosis Caused by Various Minerals and Mixed Dusts (Continued)

4-112 Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

4-113 Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (Continued)

Pulmonary Embolism/Venous Thromboembolism

4-114 Predisposing Factors for Pulmonary Embolism

4-115 Sources of Pulmonary Emboli

4-116 Clinical Manifestations of Leg Vein Thrombosis

4-117 Ultrasound and CT in Diagnosis of Acute Venous Thromboembolism 

4-118 Embolism of Lesser Degree without Infarction

4-119 Pulmonary Infarction

4-120 Massive Embolization

4-121 Mechanical Defenses Against and Chronic Effects of Pulmonary Embolism

4-122 Special Situations and Extravascular Sources of Pulmonary Emboli

Pulmonary Hypertension

4-123 WHO Classification System of Pulmonary Hypertension

4-124 Pathology of Pulmonary Hypertension

4-125 Diagnosis of Pulmonary Hypertension

4-126 Therapy for Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary Edema

4-127 Pulmonary Edema: Pathway of Normal Pulmonary Fluid Resorption

4-128 Pulmonary Edema: Some Etiologies, and Hypotheses of Mechanisms 

Pleural Effusion

4-129 Pathophysiology of Pleural Fluid Accumulation

4-130 Pleural Effusion in Heart Disease

4-131 Unexpandable Lung

4-132 Parapneumonic Effusion

4-133 Pleural Effusion in Malignancy

4-134 Chylothorax

Thoracic Trauma

4-135 Rib and Sternal Injuries

4-136 Flail Chest and Pulmonary Contusion

Pneumothorax

4-137 Tension Pneumothorax

4-138 Open (Sucking) Pneumothorax

4-139 Hemothorax

4-140 Pulmonary Laceration

4-141 Tracheobronchial Rupture

4-142 Traumatic Asphyxia

4-143 Diaphragmatic Injuries

Respiratory Distress Syndrome

4-144 Respiratory Distress Syndrome

4-145 Respiratory Distress Sydnrome (Continued)

4-146 Acute Lung Injury

Interstitial Lung Diseases

4-147 Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

4-148 Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (Continued)

4-149 Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (Continued)

4-150 Cryoptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

4-151 Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

4-152 Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

4-153 Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

4-154 Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

4-155 Sarcoidosis

4-156 Sarcoidosis (Continued)

4-157 Rheumatoid Arthritis

4-158 Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)

4-159 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

4-160 Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis

4-161 Pulmonary Vasculitis

4-162 Eosinophilic Pneumonia

4-163 Pulmonary Manifestations of Other Diseases

4-164 Pulmonary Manifestations of Other Diseases (Continued)

4-165 Sleep Medicine

4-166 Sleep-Disordered Breathing

Section 5 Therapies and Therapeutic Procedures

Pulmonary Pharmacology

5-1 Bronchodilators

5-2 Methylxanthines

5-3 Methylxanthines: Adverse Effects

5-4 Anticholinergics

 5-5 Corticosteroid Actions in Bronchial Asthma

5-6 Corticosteroids: Clinical Uses

5-7 Adverse Effects of Corticosteroids

5-8 Leukotrienes

5-9 Antileukotrienes

5-10 Cough Suppressants (Antitussive Agents)

5-11 Pulmonary Rehabilitation

Oxygen Therapy

5-12 Oxygen Therapy in Acute Respiratory Failure

5-13 Methods of Oxygen Administration

5-14 Oxygen Therapy in Chronic Respiratory Failure (Ambulatory and Home Use)

Airway Management

5-15 Introduction of Chest Drainage Tubes

5-16 Chest Draining Methods

5-17 Postural Drainage and Breathing Exercises

5-18 Upper Airway Obstruction and the Heimlich Maneuver

5-19 Securing an Emergent Airway

5-20 Endotracheal Intubation

5-21 Tracheostomy

5-22 Morbidity of Endotracheal Intubation and Tracheostomy

5-23 Endotracheal Suction

5-24 Mechanical Ventilation

Lung Surgery

5-25 Tracheal Resection and Anastomosis

5-26 Removal of Mediastinal Tumors

5-27 Sublobar Resection and Surgical Lung Biopsy

5-28 Lobectomy

5-29 Pneumonectomy

5-30 Pneumonectomy (Continued)

5-31 Video Assisted Thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)

5-32 Lung Volume Reduction Surgery (LVRS)

5-33 Lung Transplant

Selected References

Index