Review 2 Rounds: Visual Review and Clinical Reference

Review 2 Rounds: Visual Review and Clinical Reference

By Andre Gallardo, PA-C, OTR/L, Physician's Assistant/Occupational Therapist, California Hospital, Regional Student Coordinator, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California and Valerie Berry, MD, Medical Director, Primary Care Associate Program, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California


Preface

Acknowledgements

Abbreviations


1. Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

Disorders
Eye Disorders
Ear Disorders
Nose/Sinus Disorders
Mouth/Throat Disorders
Diagnosis of the Red Eye
Treat or Refer the Red Eye
Ear Symptoms and Differential Diagnosis
Defining Hearing Loss
How to Interpret an Audiogram
Sinus Anatomy

2. Cardiovascular Disorders

Disorders
Cardiomyopathies
Conduction Disorders
Congenital Heart Disease
Congestive Heart Failure
Hypertension
Hypotension
Ischemic Heart Disease
Vascular Disease
Valvular Disorders
Infectious Heart Disease
Other Heart Disease
Cardiac Goals and Norms
Cardiac Enzymes
Murmurs
The Effects of Heart Failure
Autonomic Nervous System Drugs
Hypertension Drugs
The Renin-Angiotensin System
Dental Procedure Prophylaxis

3. Pulmonary Disorders

Disorders
Infectious Disease
Neoplastic Disease
Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Pleural Disease
Pulmonary Circulation Disease
Restrictive Pulmonary Disease
Other Pulmonary Disease
Pneumonia
Respiratory Bacteria
Neoplastic Diseases
Asthma Protocol (Chronic/Stable)
Peak Flow Normal Values
Breath Sounds
Adventitious (Added) Lung Sounds
Transmitted Voice Sounds (Tests for Lung Consolidation)
Obstructive Versus Restrictive Lung Disease
Diagnosing Acid-Base Balance

4. Gastrointestinal/Nutrition Disorders

Disorders
Esophagus
Stomach
Gallbladder
Liver
Pancreas
Small Intestine/Colon
Rectum
Hernia
Infectious Diarrhea
Other Abdominal Illnesses
Nutritional Deficiencies
Metabolic Disorders
Anatomy and Testing of the Gastrointestinal System
Pearls for the Abdominal Pain Patient
Abdominal Pain
Abdominal Pain by Quadrant
Infectious Diarrhea
Hepatitis

5. Genitourinary Disorders

Disorders
Benign Genitourinary Tract
Infections/Inflammatory
Neoplastic Disease
Renal Disease
Electrolyte/Acid-Base Disorders
Genitourinary Labs
Urinalysis and its Differential Diagnosis
Acute Renal Failure Indices
Upper Tract Versus Lower Tract Infections
Diagnosing Vaginal Infections
Diagnosing Sexually Transmitted Diseases
The Sexually Transmitted Disese Check
Incontinence

6. Reproductive Disorders

Disorders
Uterus
Ovary
Cervix
Vagina/Vulva
Menstrual Disorders
Menopause
Breast Disorders
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Contraception
Infertility
Uncomplicated Pregnancy
Complicated Pregnancy
Pap Interpretation
Contraceptive Tables
Reproductive Tables and Terminology
Pregnancy Stages/Development
Pregnancy Monitoring
Pregnancy Drug Classes
Medications OK in Breast Feeding

7. Musculoskeletal Disorders

Disorders
Shoulder
Forearm, Wrist, Hand
Back/Spine
Hip
Knee
Ankle/Foot
Infectious Disease
Neoplastic Disease
Rheumatologic Conditions
Autoimmune Conditions
Provocative Testing
Diagnosing Joint Pain
Low Back Pain
Low Back Pain ? Affected Nerve Roots
Spondylolysis vs. Spondylolisthesis
How to Describe Fractures
Salter-Harris Classifications
Common Upper Extremity Fractures
Ankle Sprains
Ottawa Ankle Rules for X-rays
Non-Narcotic Analgesics
Non-Narcotic Pain Medications
Skeletal Muscle Relaxants
Opioids
Opioid Receptors
Joint Injections

8. Endocrine Disorders

Disorders
Thyroid Gland
Adrenal Gland
Pituitary Gland
Diabetes Mellitus
Lipid Disorders
Hormone Pearls
Normal Thyroid Function
Grave?s Disease
Hashimoto?s Disease
Addison?s Disease
Diabetes Insipidus
Glucose Testing
Diabetes Mellitus Pearls
Pharmacological Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 ? Oral Anti-Diabetic Agents

9. Dermatologic Disorders

Disorders
Allergic Contact
Irritants
Psoriasis
Common
Cutaneous
Acne
Fungal (Superficial)
Viral
Urticaria
Atopic Dermatitis
Dermatitis
Other
Skin Lesions
Order of Steroid Use in Topical Applications
Major Side Effects of Topical Medications
Topical Steroids De-Mystified
Dermatome Map

10. Neurologic Disorders

Disorders
Alzheimer?s
Cerebral Palsy
Peripheral Nerve
Headaches
Infectious Disease
Movement Disorders
Multiple Sclerosis
Seizure Disorders
Vascular Disease
CNS Neoplasms
Sleep Disorders
Neurologic Pearls
Brain Injuries
The Spinal Cord
Oculomotor Lesions

11. Psychologic Disorders

Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
Attention Deficit Disorder
Autistic Disorder
Eating Disorders
Mood Disorders
Personality Disorders
Psychoses
Somatoform Disorders
Substance Use Disorders
Other Behavioral/Emotional Disorders
Understanding the DSM Axes
Psychiatric Medications
Typical Street Drugs
Drug Screens

12. Hematologic Disorders

Disorders
Anemias
Coagulation Disorders
Malignancies
Quick Reference Hematology Table
Anemia Tables
Thalassemias
HUS vs. TTP vs. DIC
Coagulation Cascade Simplified
Liver Function
Genetics Table

13. Infectious Diseases

Understanding Antibodies
Bacteria and Their Diseases
Viruses and Their Diseases
Oncology
Tumor Grading/Staging

14. Pediatrics

Disorders
Orthopedics
Sugical
Cardiac
Oncology
Genetics
Blood Disorders
Metabolic Disorders
Infections
Behavioral/Psychiatric
APGAR Scoring
Pediatric Immunizations and Milestones

15. Geriatrics

16. Major Chronic Disease Management

17. Emergency Medicine

Disorders
Electrolytes
Acid-Base Physiology
Chest and Abdominal Pain
Altered Mental Status
Stroke
Head Injury
Shock
Fluids
Burns
Poisoning/Overdose
GI Bleed
Eye Emergencies
Oncologic
Other Emergent Disorders
Complications from Effects of Treatment
Rule of Nines for Burns
Poisoning/Overdose Quick Reference

18. ECG

The Anatomy of an ECG
ECG Pearls

19. Cardiac Life Support

Advanced Cardiac Life Support
Basic Life Support
Approach to the Cardiac Emergency Patient
Cardiac Terms
Antiarrhythmic Drugs

20. Wound Care

Three Most Common Legal Issues (Re: Wounds)
Puncture Wounds
Lacerations
Foreign Bodies
Abscesses

21. Medications

Understanding Medications
Oral Bioavailability and First Pass Effect
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Terminology
Antibiotics
D5W
Pediatric Dosing
Principles of Prescription Writing

22. Preoperative Testing for Asymptomatic Patients

23. Lab Essentials

Vital Signs
Blood Pressure
White Blood Cell Count with Differential
Hematocrit and Hemoglobin
Lipid Goals
Lipid and Blood Pressure Medications
Cholesterol Testing
Musculoskeletal Labs
Major Illnesses

24. Immunizations

Understanding Antibodies
Travel Medicine
Recommended Immunization Schedule for Persons Aged 0-6 Years
Recommended Immunization Schedule for Persons Aged 7-18 Years
Catch-Up Immunization Schedule for Persons Aged 4 Months to 18 Years Who Start Late or Who are More Than 1 Month Behind
Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule

25. Radiology

Normal Chest X-ray
Radiology Tips ? Chest X-ray

26. Clinical Reference Tables

Ulcer Staging
Catheterization
Tetanus Prophylaxis
Glasgow Coma Scale
Modified Borg Dyspnea Scale
Arterial Blood Gas Norms
Spirometry
Pitting Edema Scale
Manual Muscle Test Grades
Reflexes
Range of Motion
Notation

27. Documentation

Admit Orders
Discharge Orders
History and Physical Exam
SOAP Note Worksheet

28. Spanish Translations

Useful Terms and Phrases
History and Physical Exam ? Spanish
SOAP Note Worksheet ? Spanish