The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations: Nervous System, Volume 7, Part 1 - Brain, 2nd Edition

The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations: Nervous System, Volume 7, Part 1 - Brain

2nd Edition

By H. Royden Jones, Jr., MD, Clinical Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Jaime Ortiz-Patino Chair of Neurology, Lahey Medical Center, Burlington; Director of EMG Laboratory, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Ted Burns, Ted M. Burns, MD University of Virginia, Neurology Director, Neurology Residency Director, Clinical Neurophysiology Fellowship Director, EMG Laboratory ; Michael J. Aminoff, Distinguished Professor, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA and Scott Pomeroy


SECTION 1-NORMAL AND ABNORMAL

DEVELOPMENT

1-1 Embryo at 18 Days, 2

1-2 Embryo at 20 to 24 Days, 3

1-3 Central Nervous System at 28 Days, 4

1-4 Central Nervous System at 36 Days, 5

1-5 Defective Neural Tube Formation, 6

1-6 Defective Neural Tube Formation

(Continued), 7

1-7 Spinal Dysraphism, 8

1-8 Spinal Dysraphism (Continued), 9

1-9 Fetal Brain Growth in the First

Trimester, 10

1-10 Craniosynostosis, 11

1-11 Extracranial Hemorrhage and Skull

Fractures in the Newborn, 12

1-12 Intracranial Hemorrhage in the

Newborn, 13

1-13 The External Development of the Brain

in the Second and Third Trimesters, 14

1-14 Mature Brain Ventricles, 15

1-15 Hydrocephalus, 16

1-16 Surgical Treatment of Hydrocephalus, 17

1-17 Cerebral Palsy, 18

1-18 Establishing Cellular Diversity in the

Embryonic Brain and Spinal Cord, 20

1-19 Generation of Neuronal Diversity in the

Spinal Cord and Hindbrain, 22

1-20 Circuit Formation in the Spinal Cord, 23

1-21 Sheath and Satellite Cell Formation, 24

1-22 Development of Myelination and Axon

Ensheathment, 25

1-23 Brachial Plexus and/or Cervical Nerve

Root Injuries at Birth, 26

1-24 Morphogenesis and Regional

Differentiation of the Forebrain, 27

1-25 Neurogenesis and Cell Migration in the

Developing Neocortex, 28

1-26 Neuronal Proliferation and Migration

Disorders, 29

1-27 Developmental Dyslexia, 30

1-28 Autism Spectrum Disorders, 31

1-29 Rett Syndrome, 32

SECTION 2-CEREBRAL CORTEX AND

NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS

2-1 Superolateral Surface of Brain, 34

2-2 Medial Surface of Brain, 35

2-3 Inferior Surface of Brain, 36

2-4 Cerebral Cortex: Function and

Association Pathways, 37

2-5 Major Cortical Association Bundles, 38

2-6 Corticocortical and Subcorticocortical

Projection Circuits, 39

2-7 Corpus Callosum, 40

2-8 Rhinencephalon and Limbic System, 41

2-9 Hippocampus, 42

2-10 Fornix, 43

2-11 Amygdala, 44

2-12 Forebrain Regions Associated with

Hypothalamus, 45

2-13 Thalamocortical Radiations, 46

2-14 Neuronal Structure and Synapses, 47

2-15 Chemical Synaptic Transmission, 48

2-16 Summation of Excitation and

Inhibition, 49

2-17 Types of Neurons in Cerebral Cortex, 50

2-18 Astrocytes, 51

2-19 Testing for Defects of Higher Cortical

Function, 52

2-20 Memory Circuits, 53

2-21 Amnesia, 54

2-22 Dominant Hemisphere Language

Dysfunction, 55

2-23 Nondominant Hemisphere Higher Cortical

Dysfunction, 56

2-24 Alzheimer Disease: Pathology, 57

2-25 Alzheimer Disease: Distribution of

Pathology, 58

2-26 Alzheimer Disease: Clinical

Manifestations, Progressive Phases, 59

2-27 Frontotemporal Dementia, 60

2-28 Dementia with Lewy Bodies, 61

2-29 Vascular Dementia, 62

2-30 Treatable Dementias, 63

2-31 Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus, 64

SECTION 3-EPILEPSY

3-1 Electroencephalography, 66

3-2 Focal (Partial) Seizures, 67

3-3 Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, 68

3-4 Absence Seizures, 69

3-5 Epileptic Syndromes, 70

3-6 Neonatal Seizures, 71

3-7 Status Epilepticus, 72

3-8 Causes of Seizures, 73

3-9 Neurobiology of Epilepsy, 74

3-10 Neurobiology of Epilepsy (Continued), 75

3-11 Neurobiology of Epilepsy (Continued), 76

3-12 Treatment of Epilepsy: Preoperative

Evaluation, 77

3-13 Treatment of Epilepsy: Resective

Surgery, 78

SECTION 4-PSYCHIATRY

4-1 Limbic System, 80

4-2 Major Depressive Disorder, 81

4-3 Postpartum Depression, 82

4-4 Bipolar Disorder, 83

4-5 Generalized Anxiety Disorder, 84

4-6 Social Anxiety disorder, 85

4-7 Panic Disorder, 86

4-8 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 87

4-9 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, 88

4-10 Somatization, 89

4-11 Conversion Disorder, 90

4-12 Schizophrenia, 91

4-13 Alcohol Use Disorders, 92

4-14 Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders, 93

4-15 Alcohol Withdrawal, 94

4-16 Opioid Use Disorders, 95

4-17 Opioid Withdrawal, 96

4-18 Borderline Personality Disorder, 97

4-19 Antisocial Personality Disorder, 98

4-20 Intimate Partner Abuse, 99

4-21 Elder Abuse, 100

4-22 Delirium and Acute Personality

Changes, 101

4-23 Delirium and Acute Personality Changes

(Continued), 102

4-24 Insomnia, 103

4-25 Pediatrics: Depressive Disorders, 104

4-26 Pediatrics: Anxiety Disorders, 105

4-27 Pediatrics: Disruptive Behavior

Disorders, 106

4-28 Pediatrics: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity

Disorder, 107

4-29 Pediatrics: Eating Disorders, 108

4-30 Child Abuse: Fractures in Abused

Children, 109

4-31 Child Abuse: Staging of Injuries and

Injury Patterns, 110

SECTION 5-HYPOTHALAMUS, PITUITARY,

SLEEP, AND THALAMUS

5-1 Anatomic Relationships of the

Hypothalamus, 112

5-2 Development and Developmental

Disorders of the Hypothalamus, 113

5-3 Blood Supply of the Hypothalamus and

Pituitary Gland, 114

5-4 General Topography of the

Hypothalamus, 115

5-5 Overview of Hypothalamic Nuclei, 116

5-6 Hypothalamic Control of the Pituitary

Gland, 117

5-7 Hypothalamic Control of the Autonomic

Nervous System, 118

5-8 Olfactory Inputs to the

Hypothalamus, 119

5-9 Visual Inputs to the Hypothalamus, 120

5-10 Somatosensory Inputs to the

Hypothalamus, 121

5-11 Taste and Other Visceral Sensory Inputs

to the Hypothalamus, 122

5-12 Limbic and Cortical Inputs to the

Hypothalamus, 123

5-13 Overview of Hypothalamic Function and

Dysfunction, 124

5-14 Regulation of Water Balance, 125

5-15 Temperature Regulation, 126

5-16 Fever: Cytokines and Prostaglandins

Cause the Sickness Response, 127

5-17 Fever: Hypothalamic Responses During

Inflammation Modulate Immune

Response, 128

5-18 Regulation of Food Intake, Body Weight,

and Metabolism, 129

5-19 Stress Response, 130

5-20 Hypothalamic Regulation of

Cardiovascular Function, 131

5-21 Hypothalamic Regulation of Sleep, 132

5-22 Narcolepsy: A Hypothalamic Sleep

Disorder, 133

5-23 Sleep-Disordered Breathing, 134

5-24 Parasomnias, 135

5-25 Divisions of the Pituitary Gland

and Its Relationships to the

Hypothalamus, 136

5-26 Posterior Pituitary Gland, 137

5-27 Anatomic Relationships of the Pituitary

Gland, 138

5-28 Effects of Pituitary Mass Lesions on the

Visual Apparatus, 139

5-29 Anterior Pituitary Hormone

Deficiencies, 140

5-30 Severe Anterior Pituitary Hormone

Deficiencies (Panhypopituitarism), 141

5-31 Postpartum Pituitary Infarction (Sheehan

Syndrome), 142

5-32 Pituitary Apoplexy, 143

5-33 Thalamic Anatomy and Pathology, 144

5-34 Thalamic Anatomy and Pathology

(Continued), 145

SECTION 6-DISORDERS OF

CONSCIOUSNESS (COMA)

6-1 Coma, 148

6-2 Disorders of Consciousness, 149

6-3 Full Outline of Unresponsiveness Score

(FOUR), 150

6-4 Prognosis in Coma Related to Severe

Head Injuries, 151

6-5 Differential Diagnosis of Coma, 152

6-6 Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Damage, 153

6-7 Vegetative State and Minimally Conscious

State, 154

6-8 Brain Death, 155

6-9 Ventilatory Patterns and Apnea Test, 156

SECTION 7-BASAL GANGLIA AND

MOVEMENT DISORDERS

7-1 Basal Nuclei (Ganglia), 158

7-2 Basal Ganglia and Related Structures 159

7-3 Schematic and Cross Section of Basal

Ganglia, 160

7-4 Parkinsonism: Early Manifestations, 161

7-5 Parkinsonism: Successive Clinical

Stages, 162

7-6 Neuropathology of Parkinson

Disease, 163

7-7 Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, 164

7-8 Corticobasal Degeneration, 165

7-9 Parkinsonism: Hypothesized Role of

Dopamine, 166

7-10 Surgical Management of Movement

Disorders, 167

7-11 Hyperkinetic Movement Disorder:

Idiopathic Torsion Dystonia, 168

7-12 Hyperkinetic Movement Disorder:

Cervical Dystonia, 169

7-13 Chorea/Ballism, 170

7-14 Tremor, 171

7-15 Tics and Tourette Syndrome, 172

7-16 Myoclonus, 173

7-17 Wilson Disease, 174

7-18 Psychogenic Movement Disorders, 175

7-19 Cerebral Palsy, 176

SECTION 8-CEREBELLUM AND ATAXIA

8-1 Cerebellum and the Fourth Ventricle, 178

8-2 Cerebellum Gross Anatomy, 179

8-3 Cerebellar Peduncles, 180

8-4 Cerebellar Cortex and Nuclei, 181

8-5 Cerebellar Cortex and Nuclei

(Continued), 182

8-6 Cerebellar Cortical and Corticonuclear

Circuitry, 183

8-7 Cerebellar Cortical and Corticonuclear

Circuitry (Continued), 184

8-8 Cerebellum Subdivisions and Afferent

Pathways, 185

8-9 Cerebellum Subdivisions and Afferent

Pathways (Continued), 186

8-10 Cerebellar Efferent Pathways, 187

8-11 Cerebellovestibular Pathways, 189

8-12 Cerebellum Modular Organization, 190

8-13 Cerebrocerebellar Connections, 191

8-14 Cerebellar Motor Examination, 192

8-15 Cerebellar Cognitive Affective

Syndrome, 193

8-16 Cerebellar Disorders Differential

Diagnosis, 194

8-17 Gait Disorders-Differential

Diagnosis, 195

8-18 Gait Disorders-Differential Diagnosis

(Continued), 196

8-19 Friedreich Ataxia, 197

SECTION 9-CEREBROVASCULAR

CIRCULATION AND STROKE

OVERVIEW AND APPROACH TO STROKE PATIENT

9-1 Arteries to Brain and Meninges, 200

9-2 Territories of the Cerebral Arteries, 201

9-3 Arteries of Brain: Lateral and Medial

Views, 202

9-4 Arteries Of Brain: Frontal View and

Section, 203

9-5 Stroke Subtypes, 204

9-6 Temporal Profile of Transient Ischemic

Attack (TIA) and Completed Infarction

(CI), 205

9-7 Clinical Evaluation and Therapeutic

Options in Stroke, 206

9-8 Clinical Evaluation and Therapeutic

Options in Stroke (Continued), 207

9-9 Uncommon Etiologic Mechanisms in

Stroke, 208

ANTERIOR CIRCULATION ISCHEMIA

9-10 Common Sites of Cerebrovascular

Occlusive Disease, 209

9-11 Other Etiologies of Carotid Artery

Disease, 210

9-12 Clinical Manifestations of Carotid Artery

Disease, 211

9-13 Occlusion of Middle and Anterior

Cerebral Arteries, 212

9-14 Diagnosis of Internal Carotid

Disease, 213

9-15 Diagnosis of Carotid Artery Disease, 214

9-16 Carotid Endarterectomy, 215

9-17 Endovascular ICA Angioplasty and

Stenting Using A Protective Device, 216

VERTEBRAL BASILAR SYSTEM DISORDERS

9-18 Arterial Distribution to the Brain: Basal

View, 217

9-19 Arteries of Posterior Cranial Fossa, 218

9-20 Clinical Manifestations of Vertebrobasilar

Territory Ischemia, 219

9-21 Intracranial Occlusion of Vertebral

Artery, 220

9-22 Occlusion of Basilar Artery and

Branches, 221

9-23 Occlusion of ?Top of Basilar? and

Posterior Cerebral Arteries, 222

BRAIN EMBOLI

9-24 Cardiac Sources of Brain Emboli, 223

9-25 Uncommon Cardiac Mechanisms In

Stroke, 224

LACUNAR STROKE

9-26 Lacunar Infarction, 225

9-27 Risk Factors for Cardiovascular

Disease, 226

OTHER

9-28 Hypertensive Encephalopathy, 227

9-29 Hypoxia, 228

COAGULOPATHIES

9-30 Role of Platelets in Arterial

Thrombosis, 229

9-31 Inherited Thrombophilias, 230

9-32 Antiphospholipid Antibody

Syndrome, 231

VENOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS

9-33 Meninges and Superficial Cerebral

Veins, 232

9-34 Intracranial Venous Sinuses, 233

9-35 Diagnosis of Venous Sinus

Thrombosis, 234

INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE

9-36 Pathogenesis and Types, 235

9-37 Clinical Manifestations of Intracranial

Hemorrhage Related to Site, 236

9-38 Vascular Malformations, 237

SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE AND

INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSMS

9-39 Distribution and Clinical Manifestations

of Congenital Aneurysm Rupture, 238

9-40 Giant Congenital Aneurysms, 239

9-41 Ophthalmologic Manifestations of

Cerebral Aneurysms, 240

9-42 Approach to Internal Carotid

Aneurysms, 241

9-43 Interventional Radiologic Repair of Berry

Aneurysms, 242

PEDIATRICS

9-44 Pediatric Cerebrovascular Disease, 243

REHABILITATION

9-45 Positioning in Bed and Passive

Range-of-Motion Exercises After

Stroke, 244

9-46 Aphasia Rehabilitation, 245

9-47 Other Rehabilitative Issues: Dysphagia/

Gait Training/Locked-in Syndrome, 246

SECTION 10-MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND

OTHER CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

10-1 Overview, 248

10-2 Clinical Manifestations, 249

10-3 Diagnosis, 250

10-4 Diagnosis: Spinal Cord MRI in Multiple

Sclerosis, 251

10-5 Diagnosis: Visual Evoked Response and

Spinal Fluid Analysis, 252

10-6 MS Pathophysiology, 253

10-7 MS Pathophysiology (Continued), 254

10-8 MS Relapses, 256

10-9 MS Relapses (Continued), 257

10-10 MS Relapses (Continued), 258

10-11 MS Relapses: Consequences, 259

10-12 Enigma of Progressive MS, 260

10-13 MS Pathology, 261

10-14 MS Treatment, 262

NEUROIMMUNOLOGIC SYNDROMES

10-15 Neuromyelitis Optica, Acute

Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, and

Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis

-Radiologic Findings, 264

10-16 Neuromyelitis Optica, Acute

Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, and

Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis-

Histopathologic Findings, 265

10-17 Other Neuroimmunologic Syndromes:

an Overlap Between Primary and

Paraneoplastic Processes, 266

10-18 Stiff-Man Syndrome, 267

10-19 Paraneoplastic Immune-Mediated

Disorders, 268

10-20 Paraneoplastic Immune-Mediated

Disorders (Continued), 269

10-21 Neuroimmunology: Paraneoplastic and

Other Autoimmune Syndromes-Central

Nervous System, 270

10-22 Neuroimmunology: Paraneoplastic and

Other Autoimmune Syndromes-

Peripheral Motor Sensory Unit, 271

SECTION 11-INFECTIONS OF

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

11-1 Bacterial Meningitis, 274

11-2 Bacterial Meningitis (Continued), 275

11-3 Brain Abscess, 276

11-4 Parameningeal Infections, 277

11-5 Infections in the Immunocompromised

Host: Progressive Multifocal

Leukoencephalopathy and

Nocardiosis, 278

11-6 Infections in the Immunocompromised

Host: Listeriosis and Toxoplasmosis, 279

11-7 Neurocysticercosis, 280

11-8 Spirochetal Infections: Neurosyphilis, 281

11-9 Spirochetal Infections: Lyme

Disease, 282

11-10 Tuberculosis of Brain and Spine, 283

11-11 Tetanus, 284

11-12 Aseptic Meningitis, 285

11-13 Primary HIV Infection of the Nervous

System, 286

11-14 HIV Life Cycle and Antiretroviral

Medications, 287

11-15 Poliomyelitis, 288

11-16 Herpes Zoster, 289

11-17 Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis and

Rabies, 290

11-18 Cerebral Malaria and African

Trypanosomiasis, 291

11-19 Trichinosis (Trichinellosis), 292

11-20 Cryptococcal Meningitis, 293

11-21 Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, 294

11-22 Neurosarcoidosis, 295

SECTION 12-NEURO-ONCOLOGY

12-1 Clinical Presentations of Brain

Tumors, 298

12-2 Gliomas, 299

12-3 Glioblastoma, 300

12-4 Pediatric Brain Tumors, 301

12-5 Pediatric Brain Tumors (Continued), 302

12-6 Metastatic Tumors to Brain, 303

12-7 Meningiomas, 304

12-8 Meningiomas (Continued), 305

12-9 Pituitary Tumors, 306

12-10 Clinically Nonfunctioning Pituitary

Tumor, 307

12-11 Craniopharyngioma, 308

12-12 Tumors of Pineal Region, 309

12-13 Vestibular Schwannomas, 310

12-14 Removal of Vestibular Schwannoma, 311

12-15 Intraventricular Tumors, 312

12-16 Chordomas, 313

12-17 Differential Diagnosis of CNS

Tumors, 314

12-18 Treatment Modalities, 315

SECTION 13-HEADACHE

13-1 Overview of Headaches, 318

13-2 Migraine Pathophysiology, 319

13-3 Migraine Presentation, 320

13-4 Migraine Aura, 321

13-5 Migraine Management, 322

13-6 Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalagias:

Cluster Headache, 323

13-7 Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalagias:

Paroxysmal Hemicrania (PH), 324

13-8 Tension-Type Headache and Other

Benign Episodic and Chronic

Headaches, 325

13-9 Pediatric Headache, 326

13-10 Cranial Neuralgias-Trigeminal

Neuralgia, 327

13-11 Other Cranial Neuralgias, 328

13-12 Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH),

Pseudotumor Cerebri, 329

13-13 Intracranial Hypotension/ Low

Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure

Headache, 330

13-14 Giant Cell Arteritis, 331

13-15 Contiguous Structure Headaches, 332

13-16 Thunderclap Headache and Other

Headaches Presenting in the Emergency

Department, 333

13-17 Headaches Presenting in the Emergency

Department (Continued), 334

13-18 Headaches Presenting in the Emergency

Department (Continued), 335

13-19 Headaches Presenting in the Emergency

Department (Continued), 336

SECTION 14-HEAD TRAUMA

14-1 Skull: Anterior View, 338

14-2 Skull: Lateral View, 339

14-3 Skull: Midsagittal Section, 340

14-4 Calvaria, 341

14-5 External Aspect of Skull Base, 342

14-6 Internal Aspects of Base of Skull:

Bones, 343

14-7 Internal Aspects of Base of Skull:

Orifices, 344

14-8 Skull Injuries, 345

14-9 Concussion, 346

14-10 Acute Epidural Hematoma, 347

14-11 Acute Subdural Hematoma, 348

14-12 CT Scans and MR Images of Intracranial

Hematomas, 349

14-13 Vascular Injury, 350

14-14 Initial Assessment and Management of

Head Injury, 351

14-15 Glasgow Coma Score, 352

14-16 Neurocritical Care and Management

after Traumatic Brain Injury: Devices

for Monitoring Intracranial

Pressure, 353

14-17 Neurocritical Care and Management:

Decompressive Craniectomy, 354