The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations: Nervous System, Volume 7, Part II - Spinal Cord and Peripheral Motor and Sensory Systems, 2nd Edition

The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations: Nervous System, Volume 7, Part II - Spinal Cord and Peripheral Motor and Sensory Systems

2nd Edition

By H. Royden Jones, Jr., MD, Clinical Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Jaime Ortiz-Patino Chair of Neurology, Lahey Medical Center, Burlington; Director of EMG Laboratory, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Ted Burns, Ted M. Burns, MD University of Virginia, Neurology Director, Neurology Residency Director, Clinical Neurophysiology Fellowship Director, EMG Laboratory ; Michael J. Aminoff, Distinguished Professor, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA and Scott Pomeroy


SECTION 1-CRANIAL NERVE AND

NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGIC DISORDERS

OVERVIEW OF CRANIAL NERVES

1-1 Distribution of Motor and Sensory

Fibers, 2

1-2 Nerves and Nuclei Viewed in Phantom

from Behind, 4

1-3 Nerves and Nuclei in Lateral Dissection, 5

OLFACTORY (I) NERVE

1-4 Olfactory Pathways, 6

1-5 Olfactory Receptors, 7

1-6 Olfactory Bulb and Nerve, 8

OPTIC (II) NERVE

1-7 Eye, 9

1-8 Visual Pathways, 10

1-9 Optic Nerve Appearance, 11

1-10 Retinal Projections to Thalamus,

Midbrain, and Brainstem, 12

1-11 Pupillary Light Reflex and the

Accommodation Reflex, 13

OCULOMOTOR (III), TROCHLEAR (IV),

AND ABDUCENS (VI) NERVES

1-12 Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), and

Abducens (VI) Nerves, 14

1-13 Nerves of Orbit and Cavernous Sinus, 15

1-14 Control of Eye Movements, 16

1-15 Control of Eye

Movements-Pathology, 17

1-16 Control of Eye Movements-Pathology

(Continued), 18

1-17 Autonomic Innervation of the Eye, 19

TRIGEMINAL (V) NERVE

1-18 Trigeminal (V) Nerve, 20

1-19 Trigeminal Nuclei: Afferent and Central

Connections, 21

1-20 Trigeminal Nuclei: Central and Peripheral

Connections, 22

1-21 Ophthalmic (V1) and Maxillary (V2)

Nerves, 23

1-22 Mandibular Nerve (V3), 24

1-23 Trigeminal Nerve Disorders, 25

FACIAL (VII) NERVE

1-24 Facial (VII) Nerve, 26

1-25 Muscles of Facial Expression: Lateral

View, 27

1-26 Central Versus Peripheral Facial

Paralysis, 28

1-27 Facial Palsy, 29

TASTE RECEPTORS AND PATHWAYS

1-28 Anatomy of Taste Buds and Their

Receptors, 30

1-29 Tongue, 31

VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR (VIII) NERVE

1-30 Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Nerve, 32

1-31 Pathway of Sound Reception, 33

1-32 Pathologic Causes of Vertigo, 34

1-33 Canalith Repositioning (Epley

Maneuver), 35

1-34 Afferent Auditory Pathways, 36

1-35 Centrifugal Auditory Pathways, 37

1-36 Vestibular Receptors, 38

1-37 Cochlear Receptors, 39

GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL (IX) NERVE

1-38 Glossopharyngeal (IX) Nerve, 40

1-39 Otic Ganglion, 41

VAGUS (X) NERVE

1-40 Vagus (X) Nerve, 42

1-41 Vagus Nerve Branches and

Disorders, 43

ACCESSORY (XI) NERVE

1-42 Accessory (XI) Nerve, 44

1-43 Clinical Findings in Cranial Nerve XI

Damage, 45

HYPOGLOSSAL (XII) NERVE

1-44 Hypoglossal (XII) Nerve, 46

1-45 Intramedullary Course, 47

1-46 Disorders of Hypoglossal Nucleus and

Nerve, 48

SECTION 2-SPINAL CORD: ANATOMY

AND MYELOPATHIES

2-1 Spinal Cord, 50

2-2 Spinal Membranes and Nerve

Roots, 51

2-3 Arteries of Spinal Cord, 52

2-4 Arteries of Spinal Cord: Intrinsic

Distribution, 53

2-5 Veins of Spinal Cord, Nerve Roots, and

Vertebrae, 54

2-6 Principal Fiber Tracts of Spinal

Cord, 55

2-7 Somesthetic System of Body, 56

2-8 Corticospinal (Pyramidal) System: Motor

Component, 57

2-9 Rubrospinal Tract, 58

2-10 Vestibulospinal Tracts, 59

2-11 Reticulospinal and Corticoreticular

Pathways, 60

2-12 Spinal Origin or Termination of Major

Descending Tracts and Ascending

Pathways, 61

2-13 Cytoarchitecture of Spinal Cord Gray

Matter, 62

2-14 Spinal Effector Mechanisms, 63

2-15 Spinal Reflex Pathways, 64

2-16 Motor Impairment Related to Level of

Spinal Cord Injury, 65

2-17 Sensory Impairment Related to Level of

Spinal Cord Injury, 66

2-18 Incomplete Spinal Cord Syndromes, 67

2-19 Acute Spinal Cord Syndromes: Evolution

of Symptoms, 68

2-20 Acute Spinal Cord Syndromes: Pathology,

Etiology, and Diagnosis, 69

2-21 Spinal Tumors, 70

2-22 Spinal Tumors (Continued), 71

2-23 Neuroimaging (MRI) Characteristics of

Spinal Tumors, 72

2-24 Syringomyelia, 73

2-25 Subacute Combined Degeneration, 74

2-26 Spinal Dural Fistulas and Arteriovenous

Malformations, 75

2-27 Cervical Spondylosis, 76

2-28 Cervical Disk Herniation Causing Cord

Compression, 77

2-29 Infectious and Hereditary

Myelopathies, 78

SECTION 3-SPINAL TRAUMA

3-1 Spinal Column, 80

3-2 Atlas and Axis, 81

3-3 Cervical Vertebrae, 82

3-4 External Craniocervical Ligaments, 83

3-5 Internal Craniocervical Ligaments, 84

3-6 Thoracic Vertebrae, 85

3-7 Lumbar Vertebrae and Intervertebral

Disk, 86

3-8 Ligaments of Spinal Column, 87

3-9 Sacrum and Coccyx, 88

3-10 Ligaments of Sacrum and Coccyx, 89

3-11 Distractive Flexion, 90

3-12 Compressive Flexion, 91

3-13 Distractive Extension, 92

3-14 Cervical Spine Injury: Prehospital,

Emergency Room, and Acute

Management, 93

3-15 Traction and Bracing, 94

3-16 Anterior Cervical Spine Decompression

and Stabilization, 95

3-17 Posterior Cervical Stabilization and

Fusion, 96

3-18 Spinal Cord Injury Medical Issues, 97

SECTION 4-NERVE ROOTS AND

PLEXUS DISORDERS

4-1 Cervical Disk Herniation, 100

4-2 Radiographic Diagnosis of

Radiculopathy, 101

4-3 Examination of Patient with Low Back

Pain, 102

4-4 Lumbar Disk Herniation: Clinical

Manifestations, 103

4-5 L4-5 Disk Extrusion, 104

4-6 Lumbosacral Spinal Stenosis, 105

4-7 Spinal Nerves, 106

4-8 Dermal Segmentation, 107

4-9 Thoracic Nerves, 108

4-10 Thoracic Spinal Nerve Root

Disorders, 109

4-11 Diabetic Lumbosacral Radiculoplexus

Neuropathy, 110

4-12 Lumbar, Sacral, and Coccygeal

Plexuses, 111

4-13 Brachial Plexus, 112

4-14 Brachial Plexus and/or Cervical Nerve

Root Injuries at Birth, 113

4-15 Brachial Plexopathy, 114

4-16 Lumbosacral Plexopathy, 115

4-17 Cervical Plexus, 116

SECTION 5-MONONEUROPATHIES

5-1 Compression Neuropathies, 118

5-2 Chronic Nerve Compression, 119

5-3 Electrodiagnostic Studies in Compression

Neuropathy, 120

5-4 Radiologic Studies in Compression

Neuropathy, 121

5-5 Proximal Nerves of the Upper Extremity:

Spinal Accessory Nerve, 122

5-6 Proximal Nerves of the Upper Extremity:

Suprascapular and Musculocutaneous

Nerves, 123

5-7 Median Nerve, 124

5-8 Proximal Median Neuropathies, 125

5-9 Distal Median Nerve, 126

5-10 Distal Median Neuropathies: Carpal

Tunnel Syndrome, 127

5-11 Proximal Ulnar Nerve, 128

5-12 Ulnar Mononeuropathies: Potential

Entrapment Sites, 129

5-13 Radial Nerve, 130

5-14 Radial Nerve Compression/Entrapment

Neuropathies, 131

5-15 Femoral and Lateral Femoral Cutaneous

Nerves, 132

5-16 Iliohypogastric, Ilioinguinal,

Genitofemoral, and Obturator

Nerves, 133

5-17 Gluteal Nerves, 134

5-18 Sciatic and Posterior Femoral Cutaneous

Nerves, 135

5-19 Fibular (Peroneal) Nerve, 136

5-20 Tibial Nerve, 137

5-21 Cutaneous Innervation, 138

5-22 Dermatomes, 139

SECTION 6-PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHIES

6-1 Anatomy of Peripheral Nerve, 143

6-2 Histology of Peripheral Nerve, 144

6-3 Cell Types of Nervous System, 145

6-4 Resting Membrane Potential, 146

6-5 Ion Channel Mechanics and Action

Potential Generation, 147

6-6 Neurophysiology and Peripheral Nerve

Demyelination, 148

6-7 Impulse Propagation, 149

6-8 Conduction Velocity, 150

6-9 Visceral Efferent Endings, 151

6-10 Cutaneous Receptors, 152

6-11 Pacinian Corpuscle, 153

6-12 Muscle and Joint Receptors, 154

6-13 Proprioceptive Reflex Control of Muscle

Tension, 155

6-14 Hereditary Motor and Sensory

Neuropathies (HMSN, i.e., Charcot-Marie-

Tooth Disease), 156

6-15 Hereditary Motor and Sensory

Neuropathy Types I and II, 157

6-16 Other Hereditary Motor and Sensory

Neuropathies (Types III, IV, and X), 158

6-17 Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic

Neuropathy, 159

6-18 Guillain-Barré Syndrome, 160

6-19 Guillain-Barré Syndrome

(Continued), 161

6-20 Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating

Polyradiculoneuropathy, 162

6-21 Diabetic Neuropathies, 163

6-22 Monoclonal Protein-Associated

Neuropathies: Amyloid Neuropathy, 164

6-23 Monoclonal Protein-Associated

Neuropathies: Distal Acquired

Demyelinating Symmetric (DADS)

Neuropathy, 165

6-24 Vasculitic Neuropathy and Other

Connective Tissue Disorders

Associated with Neuropathy:

Fibrinoid Necrosis, 166

6-25 Vasculitic Neuropathy and Other

Connective Tissue Disorders

Associated with Neuropathy:

Sjögren Syndrome, 167

6-26 Immunopathogenesis of Guillain-Barré

Syndrome, 168

6-27 Peripheral Neuropathy Cause by Heavy

Metal Poisoning, 169

6-28 Metabolic, Toxic, and Nutritional

Peripheral Neuropathies, 170

6-29 Leprosy and Other Infections Sometimes

Causing Peripheral Neuropathies, 171

SECTION 7-AUTONOMIC NERVOUS

SYSTEM AND ITS DISORDERS

7-1 General Topography of Autonomic

Nervous System, 174

7-2 General Topography of Autonomic

Nervous System (Continued), 175

7-3 Autonomic Reflex Pathways, 176

7-4 Cholinergic and Adrenergic Nerves, 177

7-5 Autonomic Nerves in Head, 178

7-6 Autonomic Nerves in Neck, 179

7-7 Autonomic Distribution to the Head and

the Neck, 180

7-8 Ciliary Ganglion, 181

7-9 Thoracic Sympathetic Chain and

Splanchnic Nerves, 182

7-10 Innervation of Heart, 183

7-11 Innervation of Blood Vessels, 184

7-12 Carotid Body and Carotid Sinus, 185

7-13 Autonomic Nerves and Ganglia in

Abdomen, 186

7-14 Innervation of Stomach and Proximal

Duodenum, 187

7-15 Innervation of Intestines, 188

7-16 Autonomic Innervation of Small

Intestine, 189

7-17 Enteric Plexuses, 190

7-18 Innervation of Liver and Biliary

Tract, 191

7-19 Innervation of Adrenal Glands, 192

7-20 Autonomic Nerves and Ganglia in

Pelvis, 193

7-21 Autonomic Innervation of Kidneys and

Upper Ureters, 194

7-22 Innervation of Urinary Bladder and Lower

Ureter, 195

7-23 Innervation of Male Reproductive

Organs, 196

7-24 Innervation of Female Reproductive

Organs, 197

7-25 Autonomic Testing, 198

7-26 Abnormal Pupillary Conditions, 199

7-27 Clinical Presentation of Autonomic

Disorders, 200

SECTION 8-PAIN

8-1 Somatosensory System, 202

8-2 Somatosensory Afferents and Principal

Fiber Tracts, 203

8-3 Pain Pathways, 204

8-4 Endorphin System, 205

8-5 Spinothalamic and Spinoreticular

Nociceptive Processing in the Spinal

Cord, 206

8-6 Central Nervous System

Neurotransmitters, Receptors, and Drug

Targets, 207

8-7 Thalamic Pain Syndrome, 208

8-8 Clinical Manifestations Related to

Thalamus Site in Intracerebral

Hemorrhage, 209

8-9 Complex Regional Pain, 210

8-10 Herpes Zoster, 211

8-11 Occipital Neuralgia, 212

8-12 Myofascial Factors in Low Back

Pain, 213

8-13 Myofascial Factors in Low Back Pain

(Continued): Posterior Abdominal Wall:

Internal View, 214

8-14 Lumbar Zygapophyseal Joint Back

Pain, 215

8-15 Low Back Pain and Effects of Lumbar

Hyperlordosis and Flexion on Spinal

Nerves, 216

8-16 Examination of the Low Back Pain

Patient, 217

8-17 Osteoporosis, 218

8-18 Diagnosis of Hip, Buttock, and Back

Pain, 219

8-19 Hip Joint Involvement in

Osteoarthritis, 220

8-20 Peripheral Nerves of Feet, Painful

Peripheral Neuropathies, 221

8-21 Peripheral Neuropathies: Clinical

Manifestations, 222

8-22 Neurologic Evaluation of the Somatoform

Patient: Cutaneous Distribution of

Peripheral Nerves, 223

8-23 Neurologic Evaluation of the Somatoform

Patient: Somatoform Conversion

Reactions, 224

SECTION 9-FLOPPY INFANT

9-1 Neonatal Hypotonia, 226

9-2 Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type I (Werdnig-

Hoffmann Disease), 227

9-3 Infantile Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)

Disorders, 228

9-4 Congenital Myopathies, 229

9-5 Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita, 230

SECTION 10-MOTOR NEURON AND

ITS DISORDERS

10-1 Peripheral Nervous System:

Overview, 232

10-2 Spinal Cord and Neuronal Cell Body with

Motor, Sensory, and Autonomic

Components of the Peripheral

Nerve, 233

10-3 Motor Unit, 234

10-4 Motor Unit Potentials, 235

10-5 Primary Motor Neuron Disease, 236

10-6 Clinical Manifestations of Amyotrophic

Lateral Sclerosis, 237

10-7 Clinical Manifestations of Amyotrophic

Lateral Sclerosis (Continued), 238

10-8 Mimics of Amyotrophic Lateral

Sclerosis, 239

10-9 Diagnosis of Amyotrophic Lateral

Sclerosis, 240

10-10 Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral

Sclerosis, 241

10-11 Spinal Muscular Atrophy and Spinal

Bulbar Muscular Atrophy, 242

SECTION 11-NEUROMUSCULAR

JUNCTION AND ITS DISORDERS

11-1 Structure of Neuromuscular

Junction, 244

11-2 Physiology of Neuromuscular

Junction, 245

11-3 Somatic Neuromuscular

Transmission, 246

11-4 Pharmacology of Neuromuscular

Transmission, 247

11-5 Repetitive Motor Nerve Stimulation, 248

11-6 Myasthenia Gravis: Clinical

Manifestations, 249

11-7 Myasthenia Gravis: Etiologic and

Pathophysiologic Concepts, 250

11-8 Immunopathology of Myasthenia

Gravis, 251

11-9 Presynaptic Neuromuscular Junction

Transmission Disorders: Lambert-Eaton

Myasthenic Syndrome and Infantile

Botulism, 252

11-10 Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes, 253

11-11 Foodborne Neurotoxins, 254

SECTION 12-MUSCLE AND

ITS DISORDERS

12-1 Muscle Fiber Anatomy: Basic Sarcomere

Subdivisions, 256

12-2 Muscle Fiber Anatomy: Biochemical

Mechanics of Contraction, 257

12-3 Muscle Membrane, T Tubules, and

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, 258

12-4 Muscle Response to Nerve

Stimulation, 259

12-5 Metabolism of Muscle Cell, 260

12-6 Muscle Fiber Types, 261

12-7 Overview of Myopathies: Clinical

Approach, 262

12-8 Dystrophinopathies: Duchenne

Muscular Dystrophy-Gower?s

Maneuver, 264

12-9 Dystrophinopathies: Duchenne Muscular

Dystrophy, 265

12-10 Dystrophinopathies: Molecular Genetic

Testing, 266

12-11 Myotonic Dystrophy and Other Myotonic

Disorders, 267

12-12 Myotonic Dystrophy and Other Myotonic

Disorders (Continued), 268

12-13 Other Types of Muscular Dystrophy, 269

12-14 Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis, 270

12-15 Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis

(Continued), 271

12-16 Inclusion Body Myositis, 272

12-17 Immunopathology for Inflammatory

Myopathies, 273

12-18 Endocrine, Toxic, and Critical Illness

Myopathies, 274

12-19 Myopathies: Hypokalemia/Hyperkalemia

and the Periodic Paralyses

Channelopathies Myopathies Associated

with Disorders of Potassium

Metabolism, 275

12-20 Metabolic and Mitochondrial

Myopathies, 276

12-21 Myoglobinuric Syndromes Including

Malignant Hyperthermia, 277