The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations: Musculoskeletal System, Volume 6, Part II - Spine and Lower Limb, 2nd Edition

The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations: Musculoskeletal System, Volume 6, Part II - Spine and Lower Limb

2nd Edition

By Joseph P Iannotti, M.D., Ph.D. , Chairman, Orthopaedic and Rheumatologic Institute The Cleveland Clinic and Richard Parker, M.D., Chairman, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic


SECTION 1-SPINE

1-1 Vertebral Column, 2

Cervical Spine

1-2 Atlas and Axis, 3

1-3 External Craniocervical Ligaments, 4

1-4 Internal Craniocervical Ligaments, 5

1-5 Suboccipital Triangle, 6

1-6 Dens Fracture, 7

1-7 Jefferson and Hangman?s Fractures, 8

1-8 Cervical Vertebrae, 9

1-9 Muscles of Back: Superficial Layers, 10

1-10 Muscles of Back: Intermediate and

Deep Layers, 11

1-11 Spinal Nerves and Sensory

Dermatomes, 12

1-12 Cervical Spondylosis, 13

1-13 Cervical Spondylosis and

Myelopathy, 14

1-14 Cervical Disc Herniation:

Clinical Manifestations, 15

1-15 Surgical Approaches for the Treatment

of Myelopathy and Radiculopathy, 16

1-16 Extravascular Compression of

Vertebral Arteries, 17

Thoracolumbar and Sacral Spine

1-17 Thoracic Vertebrae and Ligaments, 18

1-18 Lumbar Vertebrae and Intervertebral

Discs, 19

1-19 Sacral Spine and Pelvis, 20

1-20 Lumbosacral Ligaments, 21

1-21 Degenerative Disc Disease, 22

1-22 Lumbar Disc Herniation, 23

1-23 Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, 24

1-24 Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

(Continued), 25

1-25 Degenerative Lumbar

Spondylolisthesis, 26

1-26 Degenerative Spondylolisthesis:

Cascading Spine, 27

1-27 Adult Deformity, 28

1-28 Three-Column Concept of Spinal

Stability and Compression

Fractures, 29

1-29 Compression Fractures

(Continued), 30

1-30 Burst, Chance, and Unstable

Fractures, 31

Deformities of Spine

1-31 Congenital Anomalies of Occipitocervical

Junction, 32

1-32 Congenital Anomalies of Occipitocervical

Junction (Continued), 33

1-33 Synostosis of Cervical Spine (Klippel-Feil

Syndrome), 34

1-34 Clinical Appearance of

Congenital Muscular

Torticollis (Wryneck), 35

1-35 Nonmuscular Causes of

Torticollis, 36

1-36 Pathologic Anatomy of Scoliosis, 37

1-37 Typical Scoliosis Curve Patterns, 38

1-38 Congenital Scoliosis: Closed Vertebral

Types (MacEwen Classification), 39

1-39 Clinical Evaluation of Scoliosis, 40

1-40 Determination of Skeletal Maturation,

Measurement of Curvature, and

Measurement of Rotation, 41

1-41 Braces for Scoliosis, 42

1-42 Scheuermann Disease, 43

1-43 Congenital Kyphosis, 44

1-44 Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis, 45

1-45 Myelodysplasia, 46

1-46 Lumbosacral Agenesis, 47

SECTION 2-PELVIS, HIP, AND THIGH

Anatomy

2-1 Superficial Veins and Cutaneous

Nerves, 50

2-2 Lumbosacral Plexus, 52

2-3 Sacral and Coccygeal Plexuses, 53

2-4 Nerves of Buttock, 54

2-5 Femoral Nerve (L2, 3, 4) and Lateral

Femoral Cutaneous Nerve (L2, 3), 55

2-6 Obturator Nerve (L2, 3, 4), 56

2-7 Sciatic Nerve (L4, 5; S1, 2, 3) and

Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerve

(S1, 2, 3), 57

2-8 Muscles of Front of Hip and Thigh, 58

2-9 Muscles of Hip and Thigh (Anterior and

Lateral Views), 59

2-10 Muscles of Back of Hip and Thigh, 60

2-11 Bony Attachments of Muscles of Hip

and Thigh: Anterior View, 61

2-12 Bony Attachments of Muscles of Hip

and Thigh: Posterior View, 62

2-13 Cross-Sectional Anatomy of Hip:

Axial View, 63

2-14 Cross-Sectional Anatomy of Hip:

Coronal View, 64

2-15 Cross-Sectional Anatomy of Thigh, 65

2-16 Arteries and Nerves of Thigh:

Anterior Views, 66

2-17 Arteries and Nerves of Thigh:

Deep Dissection (Anterior View), 67

2-18 Arteries and Nerves of Thigh:

Deep Dissection (Posterior view), 68

2-19 Bones and Ligaments at Hip:

Osteology of the Femur, 69

2-20 Bones and Ligaments at Hip:

Hip Joint, 70

Physical Examination

2-21 Physical Examination, 71

Deformities of the Pelvis and Femur

2-22 Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency:

Radiographic Classification, 72

2-23 Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency:

Clinical Presentation, 73

2-24 Congenital Short Femur with

Coxa Vara, 74

2-25 Recognition of Developmental Dislocation

of the Hip, 75

2-26 Clinical Findings in Developmental

Dislocation of Hip, 76

2-27 Radiologic Diagnosis of Developmental

Dislocation of Hip, 77

2-28 Adaptive Changes in Dislocated Hip That

Interfere with Reduction, 78

2-29 Device for Treatment of Clinically

Reducible Dislocation of Hip, 79

2-30 Blood Supply to Femoral Head

in Infancy, 80

2-31 Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease:

Pathogenesis, 81

2-32 Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease:

Physical Examination, 82

2-33 Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease:

Physical Examination (Continued), 83

2-34 Stages of Legg-Calvé-Perthes

Disease, 84

2-35 Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease: Lateral Pillar

Classification, 85

2-36 Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease: Conservative

Management, 86

2-37 Femoral Varus Derotational

Osteotomy, 87

2-38 Innominate Osteotomy, 88

2-39 Innominate Osteotomy (Continued), 89

2-40 Physical Examination and Classification

of Slipped Capital Femoral

Epiphysis, 90

2-41 Pin Fixation in Slipped Capital Femoral

Epiphysis, 91

Disorders of the Hip

2-42 Hip Joint Involvement in

Osteoarthritis, 92

2-43 Total Hip Replacement: Prostheses, 93

2-44 Total Hip Replacement: Steps 1 to 3, 94

2-45 Total Hip Replacement: Steps 4 to 8, 95

2-46 Total Hip Replacement: Steps 9 to 12, 96

2-47 Total Hip Replacement:

Steps 13 to 18, 97

2-48 Total Hip Replacement:

Steps 19 and 20, 98

2-49 Total Hip Replacement: Dysplastic

Acetabulum, 99

2-50 Total Hip Replacement:

Protrusio Acetabuli, 100

2-51 Total Hip Replacement: Complications-

Loosening of Femoral Component, 101

2-52 Total Hip Replacement: Complications-

Fractures of Femur and Femoral

Component, 102

2-53 Total Hip Replacement: Complications-

Loosening of Acetabular Component

and Dislocation of Total Hip

Prosthesis, 103

2-54 Total Hip Replacement: Infection, 104

2-55 Total Hip Replacement: Hemiarthroplasty

of Hip, 105

2-56 Hip Resurfacing, 106

2-57 Rehabilitation after Total Hip

Replacement, 107

2-58 Femoroacetabular Impingement/

Hip Labral Tears, 108

2-59 Avascular Necrosis, 109

2-60 Trochanteric Bursitis, 110

2-61 Snapping Hip (Coxa Saltans), 111

2-62 Muscle Strains, 112

Trauma

2-63 Injury to Pelvis: Stable Pelvic Ring

Fractures, 113

2-64 Injury to Pelvis: Straddle Fracture

and Lateral Compression Injury, 114

2-65 Injury to Pelvis: Open Book

Fracture, 115

2-66 Injury to Pelvis: Vertical Shear

Fracture, 116

2-67 Injury to Hip: Acetabular

Fractures, 117

2-68 Injury to Hip: Acetabular Fractures

(Continued), 118

2-69 Injury to Hip: Posterior Dislocation

of Hip, 119

2-70 Injury to Hip: Anterior Dislocation of Hip,

Obturator Type, 120

2-71 Injury to Hip: Dislocation of

Hip with Fracture of Femoral

Head, 121

2-72 Injury to Femur: Intracapsular

Fracture of Femoral Neck, 122

2-73 Injury to Femur: Intertrochanteric

Fracture of Femur, 123

2-74 Injury to Femur: Subtrochanteric

Fracture of Femur, 124

2-75 Injury to Femur: Fracture of Shaft

of Femur, 125

2-76 Injury to Femur: Fracture of Distal

Femur, 126

2-77 Amputation of Lower Limb and

Hip (Disarticulation and

Hemipelvectomy), 127

SECTION 3-KNEE

Anatomy

3-1 Topographic Anatomy of the Knee, 130

3-2 Osteology of the Knee, 131

3-3 Knee: Lateral and Medial Views, 132

3-4 Knee: Anterior Views, 133

3-5 Knee: Posterior and Sagittal Views, 134

3-6 Knee: Interior View and Cruciate and

Collateral Ligaments, 135

3-7 Arteries and Nerves of Knee, 136

Injury to the Knee

3-8 Arthrocentesis of Knee Joint, 137

3-9 Types of Meniscal Tears and Discoid

Meniscus Variations, 138

3-10 Tears of the Meniscus, 139

3-11 Medial and Lateral Meniscus, 140

3-12 Rupture of the Anterior Cruciate

Ligament, 141

3-13 Lateral Pivot Shift Test for Anterolateral

Knee Instability, 142

3-14 Rupture of Cruciate Ligaments:

Arthroscopy, 143

3-15 Rupture of Posterior Cruciate

Ligament, 144

3-16 Physical Examination of the Leg

and Knee, 145

3-17 Sprains of Knee Ligaments, 146

3-18 Disruption of Quadriceps Femoris

Tendon or Patellar Ligament, 147

3-19 Dislocation of Knee Joint, 148

Disorders of the Knee

3-20 Progression of Osteochondritis

Dissecans, 149

3-21 Osteonecrosis, 150

3-22 Tibial Intercondylar Eminence

Fracture, 151

3-23 Synovial Plica, 152

3-24 Synovial Plica (Arthroscopy), Bursitis, and

Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome, 153

3-25 Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis and

Meniscal Cysts, 154

3-26 Rehabilitation after Injury to Knee

Ligaments, 155

3-27 Bipartite Patella and Baker?s Cyst, 156

3-28 Subluxation and Dislocation of

Patella, 157

3-29 Fracture of the Patella, 158

3-30 Osgood-Schlatter Lesion, 159

3-31 Knee Arthroplasty: Osteoarthritis of

the Knee, 160

3-32 Knee Arthroplasty: Total Condylar

Prosthesis and Unicompartmental

Prosthesis, 161

3-33 Knee Arthroplasty: Posterior Stabilized

Knee Prosthesis, 162

3-34 Total Knee Replacement Technique:

Steps 1 to 5, 163

3-35 Total Knee Replacement Technique:

Steps 6 to 9, 164

3-36 Total Knee Replacement Technique:

Steps 10 to 14, 165

3-37 Total Knee Replacement Technique:

Steps 15 to 20, 166

3-38 Medial Release for Varus Deformity

of Knee, 167

3-39 Lateral Release for Valgus Deformity

of Knee, 168

3-40 Rehabilitation after Total Knee

Replacement, 169

3-41 High Tibial Osteotomy for Varus

Deformity of Knee, 170

3-42 Below-Knee Amputation, 171

3-43 Disarticulation of Knee and Above-Knee

Amputation, 172

SECTION 4-LOWER LEG

Anatomy

4-1 Topographic Anatomy of the Lower

Leg, 174

4-2 Fascial Compartments of Leg, 175

4-3 Muscles of Leg: Superficial Dissection

(Anterior View), 176

4-4 Muscles of Leg: Superficial Dissection

(Lateral View), 177

4-5 Muscles, Arteries, and Nerves of Leg:

Deep Dissection (Anterior View), 178

4-6 Muscles of Leg: Superficial Dissection

(Posterior View), 179

4-7 Muscles of Leg: Intermediate Dissection

(Posterior View), 180

4-8 Muscles, Arteries, and Nerves of Leg:

Deep Dissection (Posterior View), 181

4-9 Common Peroneal Nerve, 182

4-10 Tibial Nerve, 183

4-11 Tibia and Fibula, 184

4-12 Tibia and Fibula (Continued), 185

4-13 Bony Attachments of Muscles of Leg, 186

Injury to Lower Leg

4-14 Fracture of Proximal Tibia Involving

Articular Surface, 187

4-15 Fracture of Shaft of Tibia, 188

4-16 Fracture of Tibia in Children, 189

Congenital Deformities

4-17 Bowleg and Knock-Knee, 190

4-18 Blount Disease, 191

4-19 Toeing In: Metatarsus Adductus and

Internal Tibial Torsion, 192

4-20 Toeing In: Internal Femoral Torsion, 193

4-21 Toeing Out and Postural Torsional Effects

on Lower Limbs, 194

SECTION 5-ANKLE AND FOOT

Anatomy

5-1 Surface Anatomy and Muscle Origins

and Insertions, 196

5-2 Tendon Sheaths of Ankle, 197

5-3 Ligaments and Tendons of Ankle, 198

5-4 Dorsal Foot: Superficial Dissection, 199

5-5 Dorsal Foot: Deep Dissection, 200

5-6 Plantar Foot: Superficial Dissection, 201

5-7 Plantar Foot: First Layer, 202

5-8 Plantar Foot: Second Layer, 203

5-9 Plantar Foot: Third Layer, 204

5-10 Interosseous Muscles and Deep Arteries

of Foot, 205

5-11 Cross-Sectional Anatomy of Ankle

and Foot, 206

5-12 Cross-Sectional Anatomy of Ankle

and Foot (Continued), 207

5-13 Bones of Foot, 208

5-14 Bones of Foot (Continued), 209

5-15 Ligaments and Tendons of Foot:

Plantar View, 210

5-16 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Lower

Limb, 211

Fractures and Dislocations

5-17 Major Sprains and Sprain Fractures, 212

5-18 Mechanisms of Ankle Sprains, 213

5-19 Rotational Fractures, 214

5-20 Repair of Fracture of Malleolus, 215

5-21 Pilon Fracture, 216

5-22 Talus Fracture, 217

5-23 Extra-articular Fracture of Calcaneus, 218

5-24 Intra-articular Fracture of Calcaneus, 219

5-25 Fifth Metatarsal Fractures, 220

5-26 Lisfranc Injury, 221

5-27 Navicular Stress Fractures, 222

Common Soft Tissue Disorders

5-28 Achilles Tendon Rupture, 223

5-29 Peroneal Tendon Injury, 224

5-30 Osteochondral Lesions of the

Talus, 225

5-31 Turf Toe, 226

5-32 Plantar Fasciitis, 227

5-33 Posterior Tibial Tendonitis/Flatfoot, 228

Deformities of the Ankle and Foot

5-34 Congenital Clubfoot, 229

5-35 Congenital Clubfoot (Continued), 230

5-36 Congenital Vertical Talus, 231

5-37 Cavovarus Foot, 232

5-38 Calcaneovalgus and Planovalgus, 233

5-39 Tarsal Coalition, 234

5-40 Tarsal Coalition (Continued), 235

5-41 Accessory Tarsal Navicular, 236

5-42 Congenital Toe Deformities, 237

5-43 Köhler Disease, 238

Infections and Amputations

5-44 Common Foot Infections, 239

5-45 Deep Infections of Foot, 240

5-46 Lesions of the Diabetic Foot, 241

5-47 Clinical Evaluation of Patient with

Diabetic Foot Lesion, 242

5-48 Amputation of Foot, 243

5-49 Syme Amputation (Wagner

Modification), 244