Neuropathology, A Volume in the High Yield Pathology Series (Expert Consult - Online and Print)

Neuropathology

A Volume in the High Yield Pathology Series (Expert Consult - Online and Print)

By Anthony T. Yachnis, MD, Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, Universiity of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida and Marie L Rivera-Zengotita, MD, Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida


I. BASIC REACTIONS

A. Cerebral Edema

B. Hydrocephalus

C. Herniations

II. DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

A. Malformations

Neural Tube Defects

Holoprosencephaly

Posterior Fossa: Chiari Malformations

Cerebellar Vermis Malformations

Lhermitte-Duclos Disease

Neuronal Migration Defects

B. Acquired Developmental Defects

Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage

Periventricular Leukomalacia

Gray Matter Lesions

Porencephaly

III. CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS

A. Cerebral Ischemia and Hypertensive Changes

Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease

Hypertensive Cerebrovascular Disease: Ischemic Changes

Hypertensive Cerebrovascular Disease: Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Hypertensive Cerebrovascular Disease: Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES)

B. Intracranial Aneurysms

Saccular ("Berry") Aneurysms

Fusiform Aneurysms

Infective ("Mycotic") Aneurysms

C. Vascular Malformations

Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM)

Cavernous Angiomas (CA)

Capillary Telangiectasis

Venous Angioma

D. Vasculitis

Giant Cell Arteritis

Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN)

Primary CNS Angiitis

E. Inherited Cerebrovascular Diseases

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Ateriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

Moyamoya Syndrome

IV. TRAUMA

A. Closed vs Open (Penetrating) Head Trauma

Contusion/Laceration (Including Coup and Contra Coup Lesions)

Diffuse Axonal Injury (Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury)

B. Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage

Epidural Hematoma

Subdural Hematoma

V. BRAIN TUMORS

A. Diffuse Gliomas-Astrocytic

Diffuse Astrocytoma

Anaplastic Astrocytoma

Glioblastoma

Glioblastoma Variants

B. Diffuse Gliomas-Oligdendroglial

Oligodendroglioma

Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma

Mixed Glioma (Oligosatrocytoma, Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma)

Gliomatosis Cerebri

C. Other Astrocytic Tumors

Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma (PXA)

Pilocytic Astrocytoma

Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma

D. Ependymomas and Subependymoma

Ependymoma

Anaplastic Ependymoma

Myxopapillary Ependymoma

Subependymoma

E. Tumors with Ependymal-like Features

Angiocentric Glioma

Chordoid Glioma

Astroblastoma

F. Choroid Plexus Tumors

Choroid Plexus Papilloma

Choroid Plexus Carcinoma

G. Neuronal and Glioneuronal Tumors

Ganglion Cell Tumors

Desmoplastic Infantile Astrocytoma/Ganglioglioma

Central Neurocytoma

Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor (DNET)

Papillary Glioneuronal Tumor

Rosette-Forming Glioneuronal Tumor of the Fourth Ventricle

H. Embryonal (Primitive) Neuroepithelial Tumors

Medulloblastoma

Central Nervous System - Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (CNS-PNET)

Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors (AT/RT)

I. Meningiomas (Tumors of the Meninges)

Meningioma: Overview and General Characteristics

Meningioma: WHO Grade I Variants

Atypical Meningioma

Malignant (Anaplastic) Meningiomas

Hemangiopericytoma: Solitary Fibrous Tumor

J. Nerve Sheath Tumors

Schwannoma

Neurofibroma

Perineurioma

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST)

K. Primary CNS Lymphoma (PCNSL)

L. Pineal Parenchymal Tumors

Pineocytoma

Pineal Parenchymal Tumor of Intermediate Differentiation

Pineoblastoma

Papillary Tumor of the Pineal Region

M. Germ Cell Tumors of the Central Nervous System

Germinoma

Other Germ Cell Tumors

N. Hemangioblastoma

O. Sellar and Suprasellar Tumors

Pituitary adenomas

Pituicytoma

Cranopharyngioma

Rathke cleft cyst

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

P. Primary Melanocytic Tumors of the Central Nervous System

Q. Central Nervous System Cysts

R. Metastatic Brain Tumors

S. Tumors of the Skull Base

Chordoma of Skull Base

Chondrosarcoma of Skull Base

VI. INFECTIOUS DISEASES

A. Bacterial Infections

Acute Purulent Meningitis

Cerebral Bacterial Abscess

Nocardia/Actinomycetes Species

Mycobacterial Infection

Neurosyphilis

B. Mycoses

Cerebral Cryptococcosis

Aspergillosis

Mucormycosis

Candidiasis

C. Parasitic Infections

Cerebral Toxoplasmosis

Cerebral Cystecercosis

Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis

Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis

Cerebral Malaria

D. Viral Infections

General viral effects on the nervous system

Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

Cytomegalovirus Encephalitis

Rabies encephalitis

Arboviruses

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

E. Neuropathology of AIDS

Primary effects of HIV infection

HIV-Associated Vacuolar Myelopathy (HAM)

Opportunistic CNS Infections in AIDS

CNS Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (Neuro-IRIS)

F. Prion Diseases

Prion-related diseases (Overview)

Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease

Other prion-related diseases

VII. Neurodegenerative disorders

A. Alzheimer?s Disease

B. Frontotemporal Lobar Degenerations and Related Tauopathies

Corticobasal Degeneration (Rebeiz Disease)

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP: Steele-Richardson-Olszewski Syndrome)

Pick Disease

Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration: Frontotemporal Dementia and Parkinsonism Linked to Chromosome 17 (FTDP-17)

C. Frontotemporal Lobar Degenerations with Ubiquitin-Inclusions (FTLD-U/FTLD-MND (TDP-43)

D. Parkinson?s Disease and Related Alpha-Synucleinopathies

Parkinson?s Disease

Dementia with Lewy Bodies

Multiple System Atrophy (MSA)

E. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

F. Triple-Repeat Inherited Neurodegenerations

Huntington Disease

Autosomal Recessive Spinocerebellar Degeneration (Friedrich?s Ataxia)

Autosomal Dominant Spinocerebellar Ataxias (SCA)

Fragile X Tremor / Ataxia Syndrome

G. Neuroaxonal Dystrophies

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1 (NBIA 1)

Other inherited neuroaxonal dystrophies

H. Vascular Dementia and Binswanger Disease

VIII. DEMYELINATING DISEASES

A. Multiple sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis

Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders

B. Acute Disseminated Leukoencephalitis

C. Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis (Hurst Disease)

D. Tumefactive Demyelinating Lesions (TDL)

IX. TOXIC, NUTRITIONAL, METABOLIC DISEASES

A. Toxic Injury

Toxic Leukoencephalopathy

Carbon monoxide

Ethanol-related injury (including superior vermis atrophy and central pontine myelinolysis)

Hepatic encephalopathy

B. Nutritional Diseases

Wernicke-Korsakoff disease

Subacute Combined Degeneration

C. Metabolic Diseases

Neuronal Storage Disease

Leukodystrophies

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

Wilson Disease (Hepatolenticular Degeneration)

Alexander disease

X. Neuromuscular disorders

A. Peripheral Nerve Disease

Basic reactions in peripheral nerve disorders

Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Neuropathies

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and related congenital neuropathies

B. Skeletal Muscle Diseases

Essential Features: Myopathic versus Neurogenic Changes

Dermatomyositis

Polymyositis

Inclusion Body Myopathy and Myositis

Dystrophinopathies (Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

Myotonic Dystrophies

Periodic Paralysis

Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies

Nemaline Myopathy

Central Core Disease

Pompe Disease

McArdle Disease

Mitochondiral Myopathies