The Teaching Files: Brain and Spine, Expert Consult - Online and Print

The Teaching Files: Brain and Spine

Expert Consult - Online and Print

By Girish Fatterpekar, MD, Assistant Professor Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, Section Neuroradiology, New York, New York


Part 1 Brain

Section 1 Disorders of Brain Development

Subsection 1.1 Disorders of Neural Tube Closure and Diverticulation

1 Anencephaly

2 Cephalocele

3 Atretic Cephalocele

4 Holoprosencephaly

Subsection 1.2 Disorders of Corpus Callosum and Septum Pellucidum

5 Agenesis of Corpus Callosum

6 Septo-optic Dysplasia

7 Cavum Septi Pellucidi and Cavum Vergae

Subsection 1.3 Disorders of Neuronal Migration

8 Lissencephaly

9 Polymicrogyria

10 Gray Matter Heterotopia

11 Schizencephaly

Subsection 1.4 Chiari Malformation

12 Chiari I Malformation

13 Chiari II Malformation

Subsection 1.5 Disorders of the Posterior Fossa

14 Rhombencephalosynapsis

15 Joubert Malformation

16 Dandy-Walker Malformation

17 Mega Cisterna Magna

Subsection 1.6 Disorders of the Pituitary Gland

18 Pituitary Aplasia

19 Pituitary Duplication

20 Posterior Pituitary Ectopia

Subsection 1.7 Miscellaneous Disorders

21 Persistent Open Anterior Fontanelle

22 Porencephaly

23 Hydranencephaly

24 Optic Nerve Hypoplasia

Section 2 Disorders of the Perinatal Period

25 Cephalhematoma

26 Caput Succedaneum and Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage

27 Periventricular Leukomalacia

28 Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

29 Kernicterus

30 TORCH infections

Section 3 Metabolic and Neurodegenerative Diseases of Childhood

Subsection 3.1 Gray Matter Disorders

31 Hallervorden-Spatz Disease

32 Infantile Neuroaxonal Dystrophy

Subsection 3.2 White Matter Disorders

33 Alexander?s Disease

34 Canavan Disease

35 Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease

Subsection 3.3 Inborn Errors of Intermediary Metabolism

36 Propionic Acidemia

37 Glutaric Aciduria Type 1

Subsection 3.4 Lysosomal Diseases

38 Fabry Disease

39 Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

40 Krabbe Disease

41 Mucopolysaccharidoses

Subsection 3.5 Mitochondrial Diseases & Peroxisomal Diseases

42 Kearns-Sayre Syndrome

43 MELAS

44 Leigh Syndrome

45 Classic X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

Section 4 Phakomatoses/Neurocutaneous syndromes

46 Neurofibromatosis Type 1

47 Neurofibromatosis Type 2

48 Tuberous Sclerosis

49 Sturge-Weber Syndrome

50 Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome

51 Ataxia Telangiectasia

52 Neurocutaneous Melanosis

Section 5 Seizures

53 Mesial Temporal Sclerosis

54 Hemimegalencephaly

55 Focal Cortical Dysplasia of Taylor

56 Epileptogenic Focus

57 Status Epilepticus

Section 6 Intracranial Trauma

58 Non-accidental Trauma

59 Depressed Skull Fracture

60 Growing Skull Fracture

61 Pneumolabyrinth Secondary to Trauma

62 Epidural Hematoma

63 Subdural Hematoma

64 Contusion

65 Coup-contre-coup Injuries

66 Diffuse Axonal Injury

Section 7 Intracranial Vascular Malformations: Congenital and Acquired

Subsection 7.1 Arterial malformations

67 Carotid Agenesis

68 Persistent Trigeminal Artery

69 Familial Intracranial Aneurysm

70 Saccular Aneurysm

71 Mycotic Aneurysm

72 Dolichoectasia of Basilar Artery

73 Moya Moya Disease

74 Carotid Artery Dissection

75 Carotid Artery Stenosis

76 Fibromuscular Dysplasia

77 Subclavian Steal Phenomenon

78 Arteriovenous Malformation

79 Dural Arteriovenous Fistula

Subsection 7.2 Venous and other vascular malformations

80 Developmental Venous Anomaly

81 Cavernous Angioma

82 Cavernous Hemangioma of Septum Pellucidum

83 Familial Cavernous Angiomas

84 Capillary Telangiectasias

85 Arachnoid Granulations in Venous Sinuses

86 Venous Sinus Thrombosis

87 Cortical Vein Thrombosis

88 Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis

89 Vein of Galen Malformation

Section 8 Stroke

90 Acute Arterial Infarction

91 Chronic Arterial Infarction

92 Lacunar Infarction

93 Watershed Infarction

94 Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome

95 Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

96 Vasculitis

97 Bechet's Syndrome

98 Global Anoxic Injury

99 Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

100 Venous Infarction

101 Brain Death

Section 9 Intracranial Hemorrhage

Subsection 9.1 Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage

102 Intraparenchymal Hematoma, Benign vs Malignant

103 Hemorrhagic Conversion of Infarction

104 Hypertensive Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage

105 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

106 Remote Cerebellar Hemorrhage

Subsection 9.2 Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

107 Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

108 Non-aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

109 Superficial Siderosis

Section 10 Hydrocephalus and Pneumocephalus

110 Medial diverticulum of Lateral Ventricle

111 Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

112 Non-communicating Hydrocephalus

113 Shunt-related Complications

114 Tension Pneumocephalus

Section 11 Demyelinating Diseases

115 Multiple Sclerosis

116 Neuromyelitis Optica

117 Tumefactive Demyelinating Lesion

118 Susac's Syndrome

119 Marchiafava-Bignami Disease

120 Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

121 Acute hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis

Section 12 Skull Lesions (Non-neoplastic)

122 Craniosynostosis

123 Bilateral Parietal Thinning

Section 13 Intracranial Tumors

Subsection 13.1 Tumors (and Tumor-Like Lesions) of the Scalp, Skull and Cranial nerves

124 Scalp Metastasis

125 Fibrous Dysplasia

126 Paget's Disease

127 Osteoma

128 Calvarial Hemangioma

129 Intradiploic Epidermoid

130 Ecchordosis Physaliphora

131 Clival Chordoma

132 Chondrosarcoma

133 Neuroblastoma Metastasis

134 Intraosseous Meningioma

135 Calvarial Metastasis

136 Schwannoma

137 Facial Nerve Hemangioma

138 Perineural Spread of Tumor

Subsection 13.2 Tumors (and Tumor-like Lesions) of the meninges

139 Intracranial Meningioma

140 Intracranial Lipoma

141 Hemangiopericytoma

142 Meningeal (Dura and Leptomeningeal) Metastasis

143 Hypertrophic Pachymeningitis

Subsection 13.3 Lymphoma and Germ Cell Tumors

144 Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

145 AIDS-Related Lymphoma

146 Secondary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

147 Intravascular Lymphoma

148 Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder

149 Granulocytic Sarcoma

150 Germinoma

151 Teratoma

Subsection 13.4 Tumors (and Tumor-like Lesions) of the Sella and Suprasellar compartment

152 Pituitary Microadenoma

153 Diabetes Insipidus

154 Pituitary Macroadenoma

155 Pituitary Apoplexy

156 Pituitary Carcinoma

157 Rathke Cleft Cyst

158 Sella Miscellaneous: Sheehan's syndrome

159 Craniopharyngioma

160 Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of Pituitary Stalk

161 Lymphocytic Hypophysitis

162 Hypothalamic Hamartoma

163 Optic Chiasmatic-Hypothalamic Glioma

Subsection 13.5 Tumors (and Tumor-like Lesions) of the Pineal Gland

164 Pineal Cyst

165 Pineocytoma

166 Pineoblastoma

167 Papillary Tumor of the Pineal Region

168 Hemochromatosis

Subsection 13.6 Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue

Sub-subsection 13.6.1 Astrocytic Tumors

169 Pilocytic Astrocytoma

170 Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma

171 Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma

172 Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma

173 Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma

174 Diffuse Astrocytoma

175 Anaplastic Astrocytoma

176 Brainstem Glioma

177 Glioblastoma

178 Butterfly Glioma

179 Multifocal Glioma

180 Gliosarcoma

181 Gliomatosis Cerebri

Sub-subsection 13.6.2 Oligodendroglial and Oligoastrocytic Tumors

182 Oligodendroglioma

183 Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma

184 Oligoastrocytoma

Sub-subsection 13.6.3 Ependymal Tumors

185 Subependymoma

186 Infratentorial Ependymoma

187 Cerebral Ependymoma

188 Anaplastic Ependymoma

Sub-subsection 13.6.4 Choroid Plexus Tumors and Other neuroepithelial Tumors

189 Xanthogranuloma of Choroid Plexus

190 Choroid Plexus Papilloma

191 Choroid Plexus Carcinoma

192 Chordoid Glioma

Sub-subsection 13.6.5 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial Tumors

193 Lhermitte-Duclos Disease

194 Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma

195 Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor

196 Ganglioglioma

197 Central Neurocytoma

Sub-subsection 13.6.6 Embryonal Tumors

198 Medulloblastoma

199 Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor

200 Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

Sub-subsection 13.6.7 Treatment-Related Changes of Tumors

201 Radiation Necrosis

202 Pseudoprogression

Subsection 13.7 Cysts and Tumor-like conditions

203 Intracranial Epidermoid Cyst

204 Intracranial Dermoid Cyst

205 Colloid Cyst

206 Choroid Plexus Cyst

207 Choroid Fissure Cyst

208 Arachnoid Cyst

209 Neuroglial Cyst

Section 14 Intracranial Infections

Subsection 14.1 Prion diseases and Viral Infections

210 Prion Disease

211 Herpes Encephalitis

212 West Nile Encephalitis

213 Rasmussen's Encephalitis

214 Cerebellitis

Subsection 14.2 HIV and HIV-related Infections

215 HIV Encephalitis

216 Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

217 Cryptococcosis

218 Toxoplasmosis

219 Immune Reconstitution Syndrome

Subsection 14.3 Bacterial Infections

220 Lyme Disease

221 Subdural Empyema

222 Pyogenic Abscess

223 Pyocephalus

224 Listeria Encephalitis

225 Mycobacterial Infection

226 Neurosarcoidosis

Subsection 14.4 Parasitic and Fungal Infections

227 Cerebral Malaria

228 Parenchymal Cysticercosis

229 Racemose Cysticercosis

230 Hydatid Disease

231 Aspergillus Abscess

Section 15 Nutritional Deficiencies and Toxins Affecting the Central Nervous System

232 Wernicke's Encephalopathy

233 Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome

234 Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

235 Metronidazole (Flagyl)-Induced Neurotoxicity

236 Hypoglycemia

237 Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy

238 Phenytoin Toxicity

239 Heroin Leukoencephalopathy

Section 16 Aging, Dementia and Movement-Associated Disorders

240 Normal Aging

241 Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis

242 Wilson?s Disease

243 Acquired Hepatocerebral Syndrome

244 Alzheimer's Disease

245 Fronto-Temporal Lobar Dementia

246 Huntington?s Disease

247 Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

248 Multiple System Atrophy-Parkinsonism

249 Multiple System Atrophy-Cerebellum

250 Vascular Dementia

251 Motor Neuron Disease (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

252 Mild Cognitive Impairment

253 Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration

Section 17 Miscellaneous: Brain

254 Fahr's Disease

255 Trigeminal Neuralgia

256 Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

257 Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome

258 Gradenigo's Syndrome

259 Ramsay-Hunt Syndrome

260 Meniere's Disease

261 Papilledema: Drusen

262 Acute Denervation Change

Part 2 Spine and Spinal Cord

Section 1 Disorders of Spine Development

Subsection 1.1 Disorders of Primary Neurulation

263 Myelomeningocele

264 Lipomyelomeningocele

265 Lipoma, Intradural Spinal

266 Dorsal Dermal Sinus

267 Dermoid Cyst

Subsection 1.2 Disorders of Secondary Neurulation (Deranged canalization and retrogressive differentiation)

268 Tight Filum Terminale with Spinal Lipoma (Tethered Cord)

269 Lipoma of Filum Terminale

270 Sacrococcygeal Teratoma

271 Terminal Ventricle

272 Terminal Myelocystocele

273 Caudal Regression Syndrome

274 Currarino Syndrome

275 Lateral Meningocele

Subsection 1.3 Disorders (Embryogenic) of the Notochord and Vertebrae

276 Neurenteric Cyst

277 Diastematomyelia

Section 2 Spine Trauma

Subsection 2.1 Fractures and Dislocations

278 Atlanto-occipital Dislocation

279 Jefferson C1 Fracture

280 Hangman's Fracture

281 Dens Fracture

282 Unilateral Facet Dislocation

283 Bilateral Facet Dislocation

284 Flexion Teardrop Fracture

285 Hyperextension Teardrop Fracture

286 Clay Shoveler's Fracture

287 Chance Fracture

288 Burst Fracture

289 Sacral Insufficiency Fracture

Subsection 2.2 Soft Tissue Injury: Ligaments, Cord and Vessels

290 Repetitive Stress Injury

291 Hyperextension Dislocation

292 Central Spinal Cord Syndrome

293 Brachial Plexus Traction Injury, or Avulsion Pseudomeningocele

Section 3 Spinal Vascular Malformations: Congenital and Acquired

294 Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula

295 Spinal Cord Arteriovenous Malformation

296 Cavernous Malformation

297 Epidural Hematoma

298 Subdural Hematoma

299 Spinal Cord Infarction

300 Cord Myelomalacia

Section 4 Spinal Tumors

Subsection 4.1 Extradural Tumors

301 Hemangioma

302 Osteoid Osteoma

303 Osteoblastoma

304 Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

305 Chondrosarcoma

306 Chordoma

307 Neuroblastoma

308 Ganglioneuroblastoma

309 Ewing's Sarcoma

310 Leukemia

311 Plasmacytoma

312 Multiple Myeloma

313 Metastases

314 Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Subsection 4.2 Intradural Extramedullary Tumors

315 Meningioma

316 Plexiform Neurofibroma

317 Sarcomatous Degeneration of Neurofibroma

318 Dropped Metastases

Subsection 4.3 Intramedullary Tumors

319 Spinal Cord Astrocytoma

320 Cellular Ependymoma of Spinal Cord

321 Myxopapillary Ependymoma of Spinal Cord

322 Spinal Cord Hemangioblastoma

323 Paraganglioma

324 Melanocytoma

Subsection 4.4 Cysts and Tumor-like conditions

325 Arachnoid Cyst

326 Acquired Epidermoid Tumor

327 Syringohydromyelia

328 Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

329 Kummel?s Disease (Avascular Necrosis of the Vertebral Body)

Section 5 Spinal Infections

330 Diskitis and Osteomyelitis

331 Grisel's Syndrome

332 Granulomatous (Tuberculous) Osteomyelitis

333 Septic Facet Arthropathy

334 Epidural Abscess

335 Psoas Abscess

336 Acute Transverse Myelitis

337 Herpes Zoster Myelitis

338 Guillain-Barré Syndrome

339 Arachnoiditis

340 Cysticercosis

341 Sarcoidosis

Section 6 Nutritional Deficiencies and Toxins Affecting the Spinal Cord

342 Subacute Combined Degeneration

343 Radiation Myelopathy

Section 7 Aging, Degenerative Changes, and Inflammatory Arthritides Involving the Spine

344 Osteoporosis

345 Steroid-induced Changes

346 Degenerative Disk Disease

347 Spontaneous Regression of Disk Herniation

348 Discogram and its Role in evaluation of Degenerative Disk Disease

349 Scar versus Recurrent Disk

350 Baastrup?s Disease

351 Synovial Cyst

352 Rheumatoid Arthritis

353 Ankylosing Spondylitis

Section 8 Post-Treatment Complications

354 Failed-Back Surgery Syndrome

355 Instrumentation-placement Complications

356 Instrumentation Failure

357 Pseudomeningocele

358 Vertebroplasty/Kyphoplasty Complications

Section 9 Miscellaneous: Spine

359 Basilar Invagination

360 Prevertebral Tenditis

361 Idiopathic Cord Herniation

362 Dural Ectasia

363 Neurofibromatosis Type 1

364 Neurofibromatosis Type 2

365 Marfan Syndrome

366 Scoliosis

367 Conjoined Nerve Roots

368 Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

369 Limbus Vertebra

370 Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis

371 Scheuermann Disease

372 Ochronosis

373 Achondroplasia

374 Mucopolysaccharidoses

375 Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

376 Charcot (Neuropathic) Arthropathy of the Spine

377 Epidural Lipomatosis

378 OPLL

379 Paget's Disease

380 Renal Osteodystrophy

381 Extramedullary Hematopoiesis