Stroke, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Expert Consult - Online and Print), 5th Edition

Stroke

5th Edition Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (Expert Consult - Online and Print)

By J. P. Mohr, MS, MD, Daniel Sciarra Professor of Neurology, Department of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University; New York, NY; Philip A. Wolf, MD, Professor of Neurology, Medicine, and Public Health, Boston University School of Medicine, Principal Investigator, Framington Heart Study, Boston, MA; James C. Grotta, MD, Professor of Neurology, Chairman, Department of Neurology, Director, Vascular Neurology Program, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX; Michael A. Moskowitz, MD, Professor of Neurology, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Science and Technology, Boston, MA; Marc R. Mayberg, MD, Executive Director, Seattle Neuroscience Institute at Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA; Rüdiger von Kummer, MD, FAHA, Professor of Diagnostic Radiology/Neuroradiology, Head, Department of Neuroradiology, Technische Universität Dresden, Director, Dresden University Stroke Centre, Dresden, Germany


section one

Pathophysiology

Michael A. Moskowitz

1
Vascular Biology and Atherosclerosis of Cerebral Arteries 03

Alyson A. Miller, Christopher G. Sobey

2
The Cerebral Microvasculature and Responses to Ischemia 16

Gregory J. del Zoppo, Gerhard F. Hamann

3
Mechanisms of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 29

Gregory J. del Zoppo, Mary A. Kalafut

4
Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism in Human Cerebrovascular Disease 44

Allyson R. Zazulia, Joanne Markham, William J. Powers

5
Histopathology of Cerebral Ischemia 68

ROLAND N. Auer

6
Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Ischemia-Induced Neuronal Death 75

Dimitry Ofengeim, Takahiro Miyawaki, R. Suzanne Zukin

7
Apoptosis and Related Mechanisms in Cerebral Ischemia 107

Turgay Dalkara, Michael A. Moskowitz

8
Molecular Pathophysiology of White Matter Anoxic-Ischemic Injury 122

Bruce R. Ransom, Mark P. Goldberg, Selva Baltan

9
Cerebral Ischemia and Inflammation 138

Costantino Iadecola, Takato Abe, Alexander Kunz, John Hallenbeck

10
Intracellular Signaling: Mediators and Protective Responses 154

Valina L. Dawson, Ted M. Dawson

11
Enhancing Brain Reorganization and Recovery of Function after Stroke 162

Michael Chopp, Zheng Gang Zhang

12
Genetics and Vascular Biology of Brain Vascular Malformations 169

Helen Kim, Ludmila Pawlikowska, William L. Young

section two

Epidemiology and Prevention

Philip A. Wolf

13
Distribution of Stroke: Heterogeneity by Age, Race, and Sex 189

Virginia J. Howard, George Howard

14
Epidemiology of Stroke 198

Philip A. Wolf, William B. Kannel

15
Prognosis after Stroke 219

TATJANA Rundek, Ralph L. Sacco

16 Primary Prevention of Stroke 242

Larry B. Goldstein, Ralph L. Sacco

17
Vascular Dementia and Vascular Cognitive
Decline 252

Sudha Seshadri

18 Stroke Genetics 268

James F. Meschia, Daniel Woo

19 The Global Burden of Stroke 279

Kathleen Strong, Colin Mathers

section three

Clinical Manifestations

J.P. Mohr

20
Classification of Ischemic Stroke 293

Danilo Toni, Ralph L. Sacco, Michael Brainin, J.P. Mohr

21

Clinical Scales to Assess Patients with Stroke 307

Harold P. Adams, Jr.

22
Carotid Artery Disease 334

J.P. Mohr, Henning Mast

23
Anterior Cerebral Artery Disease 362

John C.M. Brust, Angel Chamorro

24

Middle Cerebral Artery Disease 384

J.P. Mohr, Ronald M. Lazar, Randolph S. Marshall

25
Posterior Cerebral Artery Disease 425

J.P. Mohr, Jeffrey R. Binder

26
Vertebrobasilar Disease 446

J.P. Mohr, Louis R. Caplan

27
Microangiopathies (Lacunes) 485

J.L. Martí-Vilalta, Adrià Arboix, J.P. Mohr

28
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis 516

José M. Ferro, Patrícia Canhão

29
Intracerebral Hemorrhage 531

Carlos S. Kase, Steven M. Greenberg, J.P. Mohr, Louis R. Caplan

30
Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 589

Eric M. Bershad, José I. Suarez

31
Arteriovenous Malformations and Other Vascular Anomalies 616

Christian Stapf, J.P. Mohr, Andreas Hartmann,
Henning Mast, Alexander Khaw, Jae H. Choi,
John Pile-Spellman

32 Spinal Cord Ischemia 643

Joshua Z. Willey, Henry J.M. Barnett, J.P. Mohr

section four

Specific Medical Diseases and Stroke

J.P. Mohr

33
Arterial Dissections and Fibromuscular
Dysplasia 661

Richard M. Zweifler, Gerald Silverboard

34
Collagen Vascular and Infectious Diseases 687

Sachin Agarwal, J.P. Mohr, Mitchell S.V. Elkind

35
Moyamoya Disease 703

Masahiro Yasaka, Junichi Masuda, Jun Ogata, Takenori Yamaguchi

36
Migraine and Stroke 720

Hans C. Diener, Tobias Kurth

37
Hypertensive Encephalopathy 734

Catherine Lamy, Jean-Louis Mas

38
Atherosclerotic Disease of the Proximal Aorta 741

Marco R. Di Tullio, Shunichi Homma

39
CADASIL: Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy 758

Hugues Chabriat, Anne Joutel, Elisabeth Tournier-Lasserve, Marie-Germaine Bousser

40
Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction
Syndromes 765

Aneesh B. Singhal, Anne Ducros

41
Coagulation Abnormalities in Stroke 772

Bruce M. Coull, Kendra Drake

42
Stroke and Substance Abuse 790

John C.M. Brust

43
Cardiac Diseases 814

David M. Greer, Shunichi Homma, Karen L. Furie

section five

Diagnostic Studies

Rüdiger von Kummer

44
Ultrasonography 831

Stephen Meairs, Michael Hennerici, J.P. Mohr

45
Computed Tomography-Based Evaluation of Cerebrovascular Disease 870

Imanuel Dzialowski, Volker Puetz, Rüdiger von Kummer

46
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cerebrovascular Diseases 882

Steven Warach, Alison E. Baird, Krishna A. Dani, Max Wintermark, Chelsea S. Kidwell

47 Cerebral Angiography 910

Ronald J. Sattenberg, Jeffrey L. Saver, Y. Pierre Gobin, David S. Liebeskind

section six

Therapy

Part A: Medical Therapy

James C. Grotta

48
Prehospital and Emergency Department Care of the Patient with Acute Stroke 929

Opeolu Adeoye, Arthur Pancioli

49
Intravenous Thrombolysis 945

Wendy Brown, Lama Al-Khoury, Gilda Tafreshi, Patrick D. Lyden

50
Antithrombotic Therapy for Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke 971

Harold P. Adams, Jr., Patricia H. Davis

51
General Stroke Management and Stroke Units 992

Markku Kaste, Risto O. Roine

52
Critical Care of the Patient with Acute Stroke 1008

Jennifer Diedler, Marek Sykora, Werner Hacke

53
Pharmacologic Modification of Acute Cerebral Ischemia 1049

Nicole R. Gonzales, James C. Grotta

54
Treatment of "Other" Stroke Etiologies 1084


Scott E. Kasner, Brett L. Cucchiara

55
Medical Therapy of Intracerebral and
Intraventricular Hemorrhage 1106

Lewis B. Morgenstern, Darin B. Zahuranec

56
Rehabilitation and Recovery of the Patient with Stroke 1116

Bruce H. Dobkin

57
Enhancing Stroke Recovery with Cellular
Therapies 1134

Sean I. Savitz

58
Antiplatelet Therapy for Secondary Prevention of Stroke 1147

Mar Castellanos, Babette B. Weksler, Oscar R. Benavente

59
Secondary Prevention of Cardioembolic
Stroke 1173

Maria I. Aguilar, Oscar R. Benavente

60
Conduct of Stroke-Related Clinical Trials 1192

Barbara C. Tilley, Yuko Y. Palesch

Part B: Interventional Therapy

Rüdiger von Kummer

61
Interventional Neuroradiologic Therapy
of Atherosclerotic Disease and Vascular Malformations 1204

J Mocco, Stanley H. Kim, Bernard R. Bendok,
Alan S. Boulos, L. Nelson Hopkins, Elad I. Levy

62
Intraarterial Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic
Stroke 1227

Anthony J. Furlan, Jitendra Sharma, Randall Higashida

63
Endovascular Treatment of Cerebral
Aneurysms 1241

Ajay K. Wakhloo, Matthew J. Gounis, Michael J. De Leo III

64
Interventional Therapy of Brain and Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations 1255

Timo Krings, Sasikhan Geibprasert, Karel ter Brugge

65 Dural Arteriovenous Malformations 1280

J. Paul Elliott, Daniel Huddle, Issam A. Awad

Part C: Surgical Therapy

Marc R. Mayberg

66
Genetics of Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations 1292

Ynte M. Ruigrok, CATHARINA J.M. Klijn

67 Anterior Circulation Aneurysms 1301

Brian V. Nahed, Christopher S. Ogilvy

68
Surgical Management of Posterior Circulation Aneurysms 1322

Mark J. Dannenbaum, Rose Du, Arthur L. Day

69 Surgery for Intracerebral Hemorrhage 1336

Alexander David Mendelow, BARBARA A. GREGSON

70 Intraventricular Hemorrhage 1349

J. Max Findlay

71
Surgical Decision Making, Techniques, and Periprocedural Care of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations 1358

Robert M. Starke, Ricardo J. Komotar, E. Sander Connolly

72 Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations 1366

Shervin R. Dashti, Louis J. Kim, Udaya K. Kakarla, Min S. Park, Michael F. Stiefel, Robert F. Spetzler

73
Radiosurgery for Arteriovenous
Malformations 1374

William A. Friedman, Frank J. Bova

74
Cerebral Cavernous Malformations and Venous Anomalies: Diagnosis, Natural History, and Clinical Management 1388

Christopher S. Eddleman, H. Hunt Batjer, Issam A. Awad

75
Indications for Carotid Endarterectomy in Patients with Symptomatic Stenosis 1398

Jonathan L. Brisman, Marc R. Mayberg

76
Surgical Management of Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis 1403

Mohamed Samy Elhammady, Roberto C. Heros, Jacques J. Morcos

77
Extracranial to Intracranial Bypass for Cerebral Ischemia 1417

David W. Newell, Marcelo D. Vilela

78 Cerebral Infarction: Surgical Treatment 1426

Eric Jüttler, Werner Hacke

79 Cerebellar Infarction and Hemorrhage 1440

Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi, Kazuhiro Hongo, Shigeaki Kobayashi

Index 1447