Diagnostic Imaging: Pediatric Neuroradiology

Diagnostic Imaging: Pediatric Neuroradiology

By A. James Barkovich, MD, Professor of Neurology, Pediatrics, Neurosurgery and Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Kevin R. Moore, MD, Pediatric Neuroradiologist, Primary Children's Medical Center; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT; Ellen Grant, MD, MGH, Harvard, CONN; Blaise V. Jones, MD, Division Chief, Neuroradiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center; Associate Professor, Radiology and Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH; Gilbert Vezina, MD, Director, Program in Neuroradiology, Children's National Medical Center; Professor of Radiolgy and Pediatrics, The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences; Bernadette L. Koch, MD, Associate Professor, Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center; Associate Professor, Radiology and Peditrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH; Charles Raybaud, MD, Director of Neuroradiology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; Susan Blaser, MD, Staff Neuroradiologist, The Hospital for Sick Children and Associate Professor of Neuroradiology, The University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Gary L. Hedlund, DO, Chairman, Pediatric Medical Imaging Department, Primary Children's Medical Center, Salt Lake, UT; and Anna Illner, MD, Assistant Professor of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX


PART I Brain

SECTION 1 Cerebral Hemispheres

Malformations


Holoprosencephaly, Jim Barkovich, MD
Syntelencephaly, Jim Barkovich, MD
Commissural Anomalies, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Hemimegalencephaly, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Schizencephaly, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Microcephaly, Gary L. Hedlund, DO
Heterotopic Gray Matter, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Polymicrogyria, Gary L. Hedlund, DO
Lissencephaly, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)

Metabolic Disorders

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Leukodystrophies, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Mitochondrial Encephalopathies, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Hypomyelination, Blaise V. Jones, MD
MELAS, Jim Barkovich, MD
Gangliosidosis (GM2), Anna Illner, MD
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD), Gary L. Hedlund, DO
Krabbe, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Hypoglycemia, Anna Illner, MD
X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Zellweger Syndrome, Gary L. Hedlund, DO
Other Peroxisomal Disorders, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Maple Syrup Urine Disease, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Urea Cycle Disorders, Jim Barkovich, MD
Glutaric Aciduria Type, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Canavan Disease, Gary L. Hedlund, DO
Alexander Disease, Anna Illner, MD
MLC, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
PKAN, Anna Illner, MD
Huntington Disease, Jim Barkovich, MD
Wilson Disease, Jim Barkovich, MD
Kernicterus, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Acute Hypertensive Encephalopathy, PRES, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Mesial Temporal Sclerosis, Kevin R. Moore, MD

Vascular Disorders

Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage, Jim Barkovich, MD
Sickle Cell Disease, Brain , Gilbert Vezina, MD
Childhood Stroke, Blaise V. Jones, MD
White Matter Injury of Prematurity, Gary L. Hedlund, DO
HIE, Term, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)

Trauma

Cerebral Contusion, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI), Gilbert Vezina, MD
Subcortical Injury, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Hydranencephaly, Anna Illner, MD

Tumors

Astroblastoma, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Ganglioglioma, Charles Raybaud, MD
Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma, Jim Barkovich, MD
DNET, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Supratentorial PNET, Gary L. Hedlund, DO
Neuroglial Cyst, Charles Raybaud, MD
Enlarged Perivascular Spaces, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Porencephalic Cyst, Charles Raybaud, MD
Ependymoma, Supratentorial, Charles Raybaud, MD

Infection/Inflammation

Congenital CMV, Gary L. Hedlund, DO
Congenital HIV, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Congenital Herpes, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Abscess, Ellen Grant, MD
Herpes Encephalitis, Ellen Grant, MD
Rasmussen Encephalitis, Ellen Grant, MD
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, Charles Raybaud, MD

SECTION 2 Sella/Suprasellar

Introduction and Overview


Pituitary Development, Jim Barkovich, MD

Sella/Suprasellar

Craniopharyngioma, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Pituitary Anomalies, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Tuber Cinereum Hamartoma, Jim Barkovich, MD
Lymphocytic Hypophysitis, Jim Barkovich, MD

SECTION 3 Pineal Region

Germinoma, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Pineoblastoma, Anna Illner, MD
Teratoma, Gary L. Hedlund, DO
Embryonal Carcinoma, Gary L. Hedlund, DO
Pineal Cyst, Ellen Grant, MD

SECTION 4 Cerebellum/Brain Stem

Brainstem Tumors, Jim Barkovich, MD
Pilocytic Astrocytoma, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Medulloblastoma, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Dandy Walker Spectrum, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Rhombencephalosynapsis, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Congenital Vermian Hypoplasia, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Cowden-Lhermitte-Duclos (COLD) Syndrome, Ellen Grant, MD
Dysplastic Cerebellar Gangliocytoma, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Infratentorial Ependymoma, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Molar Tooth Malformations (Joubert), Jim Barkovich, MD
Cerebellar Dysplasias (Unclassified), Jim Barkovich, MD

SECTION 5 Ventricular System

Introduction and Overview


Ventricular Anatomy & Imaging Issues, Jim Barkovich, MD

Ventricular System

Choroid Plexus Papilloma, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Choroid Plexus Carcinoma, Gary L. Hedlund, DO
Hydrocephalus, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Enlarged Subarachnoid Spaces, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Septooptic Dysplasia, Jim Barkovich, MD
Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma, Gary L. Hedlund, DO
Choroid Plexus Cyst, Ellen Grant, MD
Ependymal Cyst, Ellen Grant, MD
Ventriculitis, Ellen Grant, MD
Cavum Septi Pellucidi (CSP), Charles Raybaud, MD
Cavum Velum Interpositum (CVI), Charles Raybaud, MD
Aqueductal Stenosis, Charles Raybaud, MD
Communicating Hydrocephalus, Gilbert Vezina, MD

SECTION 6 Meninges, Cisterns, Calvarium, Skull Base

Encephaloceles, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Arachnoid Cyst, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Dermoid and Epidermoid Cysts, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Meningioangiomatosis, Ellen Grant, MD
Neurocutaneous Melanosis, Anna Illner, MD
Epidural Hematoma, Charles Raybaud, MD
Acute Subdural Hematoma, Charles Raybaud, MD
Evolving Subdural Hematoma, Charles Raybaud, MD
Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Charles Raybaud, MD
Neuroblastoma, Metastatic, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Bacterial Meningitis, Gary L. Hedlund, DO
Empyema, Charles Raybaud, MD
Craniostenoses, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Atretic Cephalocele, Gary L. Hedlund, DO
Calvarium Fracture, Ellen Grant, MD
Fibrous Dysplasia, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Extramedullary Hematopoiesis, Brain, Charles Raybaud, MD
Thick Skull, Charles Raybaud, MD
Congenital Calvarial Defects, Jim Barkovich, MD
Small Skull Base, Jim Barkovich, MD

SECTION 7 Blood Vessels

Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Persistent Trigeminal Artery, Charles Raybaud, MD
Moyamoya, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Arteriovenous Malformation, Charles Raybaud, MD
Dural A-V Fistula, Charles Raybaud, MD
Developmental Venous Anomaly, Charles Raybaud, MD
Sinus Pericranii, Anna Illner, MD
Cavernous Malformation, Ellen Grant, MD
Capillary Telangiectasia, Ellen Grant, MD

SECTION 8 Multiple Regions, Brain

Phakomatoses


Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Neurofibromatosis Type 2, Blaise V. Jones, MD
von Hippel Lindau, Jim Barkovich, MD
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Sturge-Weber Syndrome, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome, Gilbert Vezina, MD
HHT, Charles Raybaud, MD
Encephalocraniocutaneous Lipomatosis, Anna Illner, MD

Trauma

Missile and Penetrating Injury, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Child Abuse, Brain, Blaise V. Jones, MD

Malformations

Lipoma, Jim Barkovich, MD
Congenital Muscular Dystrophy, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Neurenteric Cyst, Intracranial, Jim Barkovich, MD

Infection/Inflammation

Encephalitis (Miscellaneous), Gilbert Vezina, MD
Tuberculosis, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Neurocysticercosis, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Parasites, Miscellaneous, Gilbert Vezina, MD

Metabolic Disorders

Leigh Syndrome, Jim Barkovich, MD
Mucopolysaccharidoses, Skull and Brain, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome, Gilbert Vezina, MD
CSF Shunts and Complications, Susan I. Blaser, MD FRCP(C)
Intracranial Hypotension, Jim Barkovich, MD
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis, Skull & Brain, Gary L. Hedlund, DO

Tumors

Atypical Teratoid-Rhabdoid Tumor, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Leukemia, Blaise V. Jones, MD

PART II HEAD AND NECK

SECTION 1 Temporal Bone & Skull Base


Labyrinthine Aplasia, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Cochlear Aplasia, Inner Ear, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Common Cavity, Inner Ear, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Cystic Cochleovestibular Anomaly, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Semicircular Canal Dysplasia, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Large Endolymphatic Sac Anomaly, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Epidermoid Cyst, CPA-IAC, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Arachnoid Cyst, CPA-IAC, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Congenital Cholesteatoma, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Acquired Cholesteatoma, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Chondrosarcoma, Ellen Grant, MD

SECTION 2 Orbit, Nose and Sinuses

Coloboma, Ellen Grant, MD
Dermoid and Epidermoid, Orbit, Ellen Grant, MD
Nasolacrimal Duct Dacrocystocele, Ellen Grant, MD
Choanal Atresia, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Nasal Glioma, Ellen Grant, MD
Sincipital Cephalocele, Ellen Grant, MD
Nasal Dermal Sinus, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Retinoblastoma, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma, Blaise V. Jones, MD
Aural Atresia, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Orbital Cellulitis, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Lymphatic Malformation, Orbit, Ellen Grant, MD
Venolymphatic Malformation, Orbit, Ellen Grant, MD
Hemangioma, Orbit, Ellen Grant, MD
Anophthalmia, Ellen Grant, MD
Microphthalmia, Ellen Grant, MD
Macrophthalmia, Ellen Grant, MD
Extraocular Orbital Masses, Ellen Grant, MD

SECTION 3 Suprahyoid & Infrahyoid Neck

Introduction and Overview


Congenital Lesions of the Neck, Jim Barkovich, MD

Suprahyoid & Infrahyoid Neck

Lingual Thyroid, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Dermoid, and Epidermoid Oral Cavity, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Reactive Nodes/Cervical Lymphadenitis, Bernadette L. Koch, MD

SECTION 4 Multiple Regions, Head & Neck

First Branchial Apparatus Anomalies, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Second Branchial Apparatus Anomalies, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Third Branchial Apparatus Anomalies, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Fourth Branchial Apparatus Anomalies, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Thyroglossal Duct Cyst, Jim Barkovich, MD
Thymic Cyst, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Venolymphatic Malformations, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Infantile Hemangioma, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Neurofibromatosis Type 1, H&N, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Neurofibroma, Carotid Space, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Brachial Plexus Schwannoma, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Fibromatosis Colli, Jim Barkovich, MD
Rhabdomyosarcoma, Bernadette L. Koch, MD
Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumors, Charles Raybaud, MD
Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Orbit, Ellen Grant, MD

PART III SPINE

Spine & Spinal Cord Development, Jim Barkovich, MD

SECTION 1 Craniocervical Junction

Chiari I Malformation, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Chiari II Malformation, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Chiari III Malformation, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Craniovertebral Junction Variants, Kevin R. Moore, MD

SECTION 2 Vertebra

Posterior Element Incomplete Fusion, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Failure Of Vertebral Formation, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Partial Vertebral Duplication, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Vertebral Segmentation Failure, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Klippel-Feil Spectrum, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Congenital Spinal Stenosis, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Scoliosis, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Congenital Scoliosis And Kyphosis, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Schmorl Node, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Scheuermann Disease, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Achondroplasia, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Mucopolysaccharidoses, Spine, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Sickle Cell Disease, Spine. Kevin R. Moore, MD
Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Apophyseal Ring Fracture, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Spondylolisthesis, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Spondylolysis, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Pyogenic Osteomyelitis, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Osteoid Osteoma, Jim Barkovich, MD
Osteoblastoma, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Aneurysmal Bone Cyst, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Osteochondroma, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Osteosarcoma, Jim Barkovich, MD
Chordoma, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Ewing Sarcoma, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Kyphosis, Kevin R. Moore, MD

SECTION 3 Extradural Space

Occult Intrasacral Meningocele, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Sacrococcygeal Teratoma, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Epidural Lipomatosis, Jim Barkovich, MD
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis, Spine, Anna Illner, MD
Extramedullary Hematopoiesis, Spine, Ellen Grant, MD

SECTION 4 Intradural Extramedullary Space

Spinal Lipoma, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Conjoined Nerve Roots, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Filum Terminale Fibrolipoma, Jim Barkovich, MD
Angiolipoma, Ellen Grant, MD

SECTION 5 Intramedullary Space

Ventriculus Terminalis, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Charles Raybaud, MD
ADEM, Spinal Cord, Ellen Grant, MD
Idiopathic Acute Transverse Myelitis, Ellen Grant, MD
Astrocytoma, Spinal Cord, Charles Raybaud, MD
Ependymoma, Cellular, Spinal Cord, Charles Raybaud, MD
Syringomyelia, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Type II AVM, Charles Raybaud, MD

SECTION 6 Multiple Regions, Spine

Myelomeningocele, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Lipomyelomeningocele, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Dorsal Dermal Sinus, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Dermoid And Epidermoid Tumors, Jim Barkovich, MD
Cervical Myelocystocele, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Segmental Spinal Dysgenesis, Jim Barkovich, MD
Caudal Regression Syndrome, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Tethered Spinal Cord, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Terminal Myelocystocele, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Anterior Sacral Meningocele, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Diastematomyelia, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Neurenteric Cyst, Spinal, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Lateral Meningocele, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Dorsal Spinal Meningocele, Charles Raybaud, MD
Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Spine, Gilbert Vezina, MD
Neurofibromatosis Type 2, Spine, Ellen Grant, MD
Dural Dysplasia, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Leukemia, Spine, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Neuroblastic Tumor, Kevin R. Moore, MD
Hardware Failure, Kevin R. Moore, MD