Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Disease, Expert Consult - Online and Print, 9th Edition

Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Disease

9th Edition Expert Consult - Online and Print

By Alan J. Magill, MD, FACP, FIDSA, COL / MC, US Army (retired) ; Edward T Ryan; Tom Solomon and David R Hill, MD DTM&H FRCP FFTM FASTM, Professor of Medical Sciences, Director of Global Public Health, Frank H. Netter MD, School of Medicine, Quinnipiac University, Hamden, CT, USA


Contents

Preface XXX

List of Contributors XXX

PART 1
CLINICAL PRACTICE IN
THE TROPICS

Section A Organ-based Chapters

1 Tropical Lung Diseases XXX

Ilias C Papanikolaou

Om P Sharma

2 Cardiovascular Diseases XXX

Bongani M Mayosi

John Lawrenson

3 Gastrointestinal Diseases XXX

Ramnik J Xavier

Harry J Thomas

4 Hepatobiliary Diseases XXX

Mark Danta

Arthur Y Kim

5 Hematologic Diseases XXX

Stephen McKew

Jamilla Rajab

Imelda Bates

6 Urinary Tract Diseases XXX

Chris F Heyns

7 Sexually Transmitted Infections XXX

David Mabey

Philippe Mayaud

8 Tropical Dermatology XXX

Arturo Saavedra

David Rosmarin

9 Ophthalmologic Diseases XXX

Hugh R Taylor

Angus W Turner

10 Neurologic Diseases XXX

Tom Solomon

Hadi Manji

11 Psychiatric Diseases XXX

Robert C Stewart

Kinke M Lommerse

Atif Rahman

12 ENT XXX

Charlotte M Chiong

Jose M Acuin

13 Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System XXX

Richard A Gosselin

Jonathan J Phillips

R Richard Coughlin

Section B Skills-based Chapters

14 General Surgery in the Tropics XXX

Donald E Meier

John L Tarpley

Robert Riviello

15 Oral Health and Disease in the Tropics XXX

Martin H Hobdell

Tepirou Chher

16 Maternal and Newborn Health XXX

Nynke R van den Broek

17 Pediatrics in a Resource-constrained Setting XXX

Elizabeth M Molyneux

18 Disasters, Complex Emergencies, and Population Displacement XXX

Trueman W Sharp

Charles W Beadling

Section C Service-based Chapters

19 Diagnostic Imaging in the Tropics XXX

Elizabeth Joekes

Sam Kampondeni

20 Blood Transfusion in Resource-limited Settings XXX

Oliver Hassall

Imelda Bates

Kathryn Maitland

21 Infection Control in the Tropics XXX

Haider J Warraich

Syed Faisal Mahmood

Anita KM Zaidi

22.1 Microbiology XXX

Christopher M Parry

Sharon J Peacock

22.2 Approach to the Patient with Diarrhea XXX

Regina C LaRocque

Jason B Harris

Section D Topic-based Chapters

23 Cancer in the Tropics XXX

Katie Wakeham

Robert Newton

Freddy Sitas

24 Heat-associated Illness XXX

Michael V Callahan

25 Traditional Medicine XXX

Gerard Bodeker

Bertrand Graz

26 Environmental Health Hazards in the Tropics XXX

Ema G Rodrigues

David C Christiani

PART 2 VIRAL DISEASES

Introduction and General Principles XXX

Tom Solomon

Anna-Maria Geretti

27 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection XXX

Philip J Peters

Barbara J Marston

Paul J Weidle

John T Brooks

27.1 HIV, Tuberculosis, Malaria and Streptococcus pneumoniae XXX

Alison D Grant

28 Viral Infections with Cutaneous Lesions XXX

28.1 Measles XXX

William J Moss

28.2 Poxviruses XXX

Catherine G Sutcliffe

Anne W Rimoin

William J Moss

28.3 Nonpolio Enterovirus Mucocutaneous Infections XXX

Catherine G Sutcliffe

William J Moss

28.4 Kaposi?s Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus XXX

Catherine G Sutcliffe

William J Moss

29 Viral Respiratory Infections XXX

H Rogier van Doorn

Hongjie Yu

30 Viral Gastroenteritis XXX

Osamu Nakagomi

Nigel A Cunliffe

30.1 Rotavirus XXX

Osamu Nakagomi

Toyoko Nakagomi

Nigel A Cunliffe

30.2 Norovirus XXX

Aron J Hall

Manish M Patel

Benjamin A Lopman

George E Armah

30.3 Enteric Adenoviruses XXX

James J Gray

Gagandeep Kang

30.4 Astroviruses XXX

Gagandeep Kang

James J Gray

30.5 Sapovirus XXX

Osamu Nakagomi

Toyoko Nakagomi

Nigel A Cunliffe

31 Viral Hepatitis XXX

G Thomas Strickland

Samer S El-Kamary

31.1 Hepatitis A XXX

G Thomas Strickland

Samer S El-Kamary

31.2 Hepatitis B XXX

G Thomas Strickland

Samer S El-Kamary

31.3 Hepatitis D XXX

G Thomas Strickland

Samer S El-Kamary

31.4 Hepatitis C XXX

G Thomas Strickland

Samer S El-Kamary

31.5 Hepatitis E XXX

G Thomas Strickland

Samer S El-Kamary

31.6 Non-A-to-E Hepatitis XXX

G Thomas Strickland

Samer S El-Kamary

32 Viral Febrile Illnesses XXX

32.1 Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever XXX

Daniel H Libraty

32.2 Chikungunya Fever XXX

Mala Chhabra

Veena Mittal

32.3 O?nyong Nyong Fever XXX

Gregory Deye

32.4 Ross River Virus Disease XXX

David Harley

Andreas Suhrbier

32.5 Oropouche Virus XXX

Marcio RT Nunes

Pedro FC Vasconcelos

32.6 Mayaro Virus XXX

Pedro FC Vasconcelos

Marcio RT Nunes

32.7 Sandfly Fever XXX

Remi N Charrel

Xavier de Lamballerie

32.8 Sindbis Fever XXX

Gregory Deye

33 Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers XXX

33.1 Yellow Fever XXX

J Erin Staples

Marc Fischer

33.2 Lassa Fever XXX

Aulasa J Camerlin

Joseph B McCormick

33.3 South American Hemorrhagic Fevers XXX

Slobodan Paessler

33.4 Ebola and Marburg Virus Infections XXX

Amy L Hartman

33.5 Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever XXX

Christine E Mathews

Susan Fisher-Hoch

33.6 Diseases Caused by Hantaviruses XXX

Tony Schountz

33.7 Rift Valley Fever XXX

Brian H Bird

Jean-Marc Reynes

Stuart T Nichol

34 Viral CNS Infections XXX

34.1 Rabies and Related Viruses XXX

Mary J Warrell

David A Warrell

34.2 Enteroviruses Infections that Cause Central Nervous System Disease (including Poliomyelitis) XXX

Peter C McMinn

Phan Van Tu

34.3 Venezuelan, Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis XXX

Scott C Weaver

Angelle D LaBeaud

34.4 Japanese Encephalitis XXX

Tom Solomon

34.5 West Nile Virus XXX

Marc Fischer

J Erin Staples

Grant L Campbell

34.6 Saint Louis Encephalitis and Rocio Encephalitis XXX

James J Sejvar

34.7 Other Arboviral Encephalitides XXX

James J Sejvar

Grant L Campbell

34.8 Prion Disease XXX

Richard Knight

Victor Javier Sanchez Gonzalez

34.9 Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type I and II Infection XXX

Nicholas J van Sickels

Susan LF McLellan

PART 3 BACTERIAL INFECTIONS

Section A Infections of the Eye & Throat

35 Trachoma and Inclusion Conjunctivitis XXX

Hugh R Taylor

Anu Mathew

35.1 Trachoma XXX

Hugh R Taylor

Anu Mathew

35.2 Inclusion Conjunctivitis XXX

Hugh R Taylor

Anu Mathew

36 Group A Streptococcus XXX

Thomas L Snelling

Jonathan R Carapetis

37 Diphtheria XXX

Tejpratap SP Tiwari

Section B Respiratory Tract Infections

38 Bacterial Pneumonia XXX

W Abdullah Brooks

39 Tuberculosis XXX

Sonya S Shin

Kwonjune J Seung

40 Pertussis XXX

Kevin Forsyth

Section C Gastrointestinal Tract Infections

41 Helicobacter pylori Infection XXX

Caroline M den Hoed

Ernst J Kuipers

42 Escherichia coli Diarrhea XXX

Jorge J Velarde

Myron M Levine

James P Nataro

43 Cholera and Other Vibrios XXX

Debasish Saha

Regina C LaRocque

44 Shigellosis XXX

Michael L Bennish

Wasif Ali Khan

45 Nontyphoid Salmonella Disease XXX

Melita A Gordon

Nicholas A Feasey

Stephen M Graham

46 Campylobacter Infections XXX

Paola J Maurtua-Neumann

Richard A Oberhelman

47 Miscellaneous Bacterial Enteritides XXX

47.1 Yersinia enterocolitica XXX

Farah Naz Qamar

Anita KM Zaidi

47.2 Clostridium Infections XXX

S Asad Ali

Anita KM Zaidi

47.3 Aeromonas XXX

Farah Naz Qamar

Anita KM Zaidi

Section D Sexually Transmitted Diseases

48 Chlamydial Infections XXX

David Mabey

Rosanna Peeling

49 Lymphogranuloma Venereum XXX

August Stich

50 Gonorrhea XXX

Ronald C Ballard

51 Chancroid XXX

Allan R Ronald

52 Granuloma Inguinale XXX

John Richens

53 Syphillis and the Endemic Treponematoses XXX

David Mabey

John Richens

Section E
Infections Causing Neurologic Manisfestations

54 Acute Bacterial Meningitis XXX

Rathi Guhadasan

Enitan D Carrol

55 Tetanus XXX

Guy E Thwaites

C Louise Thwaites

56 Botulism XXX

Stephen J Aston

Nicholas J Beeching

Section F Infections of Skin and Soft Tissues

Bacterial Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in the Tropics XXX

Aisha Sethi

57 Leprosy XXX

Diana NJ Lockwood

Saba Lambert

58 Buruli Ulcer XXX

Mark H Wansbrough-Jones

Richard O Phillips

59 Mycobacterium marinum Infection XXX

Francisco Vega-López

60 Anthrax XXX

Arthur M Friedlander

Nicholas J Vietri

Section G
Febrile Systemic Syndromes with or without Lymphadenopathy

61 Epidemic Louse-borne Typhus XXX

Aurélié Renvoisé

Didier Raoult

62 Murine Typhus XXX

Achilleas Gikas

63 Scrub Typhus XXX

Paul N Newton

Nicholas PJ Day

64 Tick-Borne Spotted Fever Rickettsioses XXX

Cristina Socolovschi

Philippe Parola

Didier Raoult

65 Rickettsialpox XXX

Christopher D Paddock

66 Q Fever XXX

Matthieu Million

Didier Raoult

67 Trench Fever XXX

Barbara Doudier

Philippe Brouqui

68 Bartonellosis: Carrion?s Disease and Other Bartonella Infections XXX

Ciro Maguiña

Eloy E. Ordaya

69 Typhoid and Paratyphoid (Enteric) Fever XXX

Jason B Harris

W Abdullah Brooks

70 Brucellosis XXX

Georgios Pappas

71 Melioidosis and Glanders XXX

Nicholas J White

72 Plague XXX

Michel Drancourt

73 Tularemia XXX

Max Maurin

74 Leptospirosis XXX

George Watt

75 Relapsing Fever and Borreliosis XXX

Michel Drancourt

PART 4 THE MYCOSES

76 General Principles XXX

Roderick J Hay

77 Superficial Mycoses XXX

Roderick J Hay

77.1 Dermatophyte Infection (Ringworm, Tinea) XXX

Roderick J Hay

77.2 Superficial Candidiasis XXX

Roderick J Hay

77.3 Pityriasis (Tinea) Versicolor XXX

Roderick J Hay

77.4 Other Superficial Mycoses XXX

Roderick J Hay

78 Subcutaneous Mycoses: General Principles XXX

Roderick J Hay

78.1 Mycetoma (Maduromycosis, Madura foot) XXX

Roderick J Hay

78.2 Sporotrichosis XXX

Roderick J Hay

78.3 Chromoblastomycosis XXX

Roderick J Hay

78.4 Rhinosporidiosis XXX

Roderick J Hay

78.5 Entomophthoromycosis caused by Basidiobolus XXX

Roderick J Hay

78.6 Entomophthoromycosis caused by Conidiobolus XXX

Roderick J Hay

78.7 Other Subcutaneous Mycoses XXX

Roderick J Hay

79 Protothecosis XXX

Ann M Nelson

Ronald C Neafie

80 Histoplasmosis XXX

Eileen E Navarro

Thomas J Walsh

Roderick J Hay

81 Coccidioidomycosis XXX

Gregory M Anstead

John R Graybill

82 Blastomycosis XXX

Keyur S Vyas

Robert W Bradsher Jr

83 Paracoccidioidomycosis XXX

Ricardo Negroni

84 Cryptococcosis XXX

Françoise Dromer

Olivier Lortholary

85 Penicilliosis Marneffei XXX

Khuanchai Supparatpinyo

86 Pneumocystis Pneumonia XXX

Powel Kazanjian

87 Treatment of Systemic Mycoses XXX

Edward C Oldfield III

PART 5 PROTOZOAL INFECTIONS

88 General Principles XXX

Alan J Magill

Section A Intestinal and Genital Infections

89 Entamoeba histolytica (Amebiasis) XXX

Eric Houpt

Chien-Ching Hung

90 Giardiasis XXX

Rodney D Adam

91 Cryptosporidiosis XXX

Lihua Xiao

Jeffrey K Griffiths

92 Cyclosporiasis XXX

David R Shlim

Bradley A Connor

93 Cystoisospora belli (syn. Isospora belli) XXX

Rebecca Dillingham

Eric R Houpt

94 Miscellaneous Intestinal Protozoa XXX

Lynne S Garcia

94.1 Balantidiasis XXX

Lynne S Garcia

94.2 Dientamoeba fragilis XXX

Lynne S Garcia

94.3 Entamoeba polecki XXX

Lynne S Garcia

94.4 Blastocystis hominis XXX

Lynne S Garcia

94.5 Non-pathogenic Intestinal Protozoa XXX

Lynne S Garcia

95 Trichomoniasis XXX

Michael F Rein

Section B
Infections of the Blood and Reticuloendothelial System

96 Malaria XXX

Terrie Taylor

Tsiri Agbenyega

97 African Trypanosomiasis XXX

Sanjeev Krishna

August Stich

98 American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease) XXX

Rogelio López-Vélez

Francesca F Norman

Caryn Bern

99 Leishmaniasis XXX

Alan J Magill

99.1 Leishmaniasis: General Principles XXX

Alan J Magill

99.2 Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) XXX

Alan J Magill

99.3 Cutaneous Leishmaniasis of the Old World XXX

Alan J Magill

99.4 Cutaneous Leishmaniasis of the New World XXX

Alan J Magill

100 Babesiosis XXX

Edouard Vannier

Peter J Krause

Section C Tissue Infection

101 Toxoplasmosis XXX

Luc Paris

102 Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-living Ameba Infections XXX

Govinda S Visvesvara

103 Sarcocystosis XXX

Benjamin M Rosenthal

104 Microsporidiosis XXX

Louis M Weiss

105 Miscellaneous Tissue Protozoa XXX

Edward T Ryan

PART 6 HELMINTHIC INFECTIONS

106 General Principles XXX

G Thomas Strickland

David R Hill

Section A Intestinal Nematode Infections

107 Nematodes Limited to the Intestinal Tract (Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Capillaria philippinensis and Trichostrongylus spp.) XXX

Donald AP Bundy

Edward S Cooper

Simon Brooker

108 Intestinal Nematodes: Ascariasis XXX

Donald AP Bundy

Nilanthi DeSilva

Simon Brooker

109 Hookworm and Strongyloides Infections XXX

Peter J Hotez

Robert H Gilman

Section B Filarial Infections

110 Lymphatic Filariasis XXX

LeAnne M Fox

Christopher L King

111 Loiasis XXX

Amy D Klion

112 Onchocerciasis XXX

Philip J Cooper

Thomas B Nutman

113 Miscellaneous Filariae XXX

Amy D Klion

Section C Other Tissue Nematode Infections

114 Dracunculiasis XXX

Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben

115 Trichinellosis XXX

Fabrizio Bruschi

K Darwin Murrell

116 Toxocariasis XXX

Dana M Woodhall

117 Gnathostomiasis XXX

Paron Dekumyoy

Dorn Watthanakulpanich

118 Eosinophilic Meningitis (Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Parastrongylus cantonensis) XXX

Yupaporn Wattanagoon

John H Cross (deceased)

119 Abdominal Angiostrongyliasis XXX

Pedro Morera

120 Cutaneous Larva Migrans XXX

Susan P Montgomery

121 Anisakidosis XXX

Davidson H Hamer

Section D Trematode Infections

122 Schistosomiasis XXX

Bruno Gryseels

G Thomas Strickland

123 Intestinal Fluke Infections XXX

Yupaporn Wattanagoon

Danai Bunnag

124 Liver Fluke infections XXX

Yupaporn Wattanagoon

Danai Bunnag

124.1 Opisthorchiasis and Clonorchiasis XXX

Yupaporn Wattanagoon

Danai Bunnag

124.2 Fascioliasis XXX

Yupaporn Wattanagoon

Danai Bunnag

124.3 Dicroceliasis and Eurytremiasis XXX

Yupaporn Wattanagoon

Danai Bunnag

125 Paragonimiasis XXX

Yupaporn Wattanagoon

Danai Bunnag

Section E Cestode Infections

126 Tapeworm Infections XXX

Joseph D Mega

Gerson Galdos-Cardenas

Robert H Gilman

126.1 Taeniasis XXX

Joseph D Mega

Gerson Galdos-Cardenas

Robert H Gilman

126.2 Diphyllobothriasis XXX

Joseph D Mega

Gerson Galdos-Cardenas

Robert H Gilman

126.3 Hymenolepiasis XXX

Joseph D Mega

Gerson Galdos-Cardenas

Robert H Gilman

126.4 Dipylidiasis XXX

Joseph D Mega

Gerson Galdos-Cardenas

Robert H Gilman

127 Larval Cestode Infections (Cysticercosis) XXX

Hector H Garcia

Robert H Gilman

128 Cystic Echinococcosis XXX

Pedro L Moro

Peter M Schantz

129 Alveolar Echinococcosis (Alveolar Hydatid Disease) XXX

Pedro L Moro

Peter M Schantz

130 Polycystic Echinococcosis (Polycystic Hydatid Disease) XXX

Pedro L Moro

Peter M Schantz

131 Sparganosis XXX

Meredith L Holtz

Robert H Gilman

132 Coenuriasis XXX

Rachel B Webman

Robert H Gilman

PART 7
POISONOUS AND TOXIC PLANTS AND ANIMALS

133 Poisonous Plants and Aquatic Animals XXX

David A Warrell

Hans Persson

Michael Eddleston

133.1 Poisonous Aquatic Animals XXX

David A Warrell

133.2 Fish Poisoning: Gastrointestinal and Neurotoxic Syndromes XXX

David A Warrell

133.3 Mushroom Poisoning XXX

Hans Persson

133.4 Poisoning by Plants XXX

Hans Persson

133.5 Plant Cardiac Glycoside Poisoning XXX

Michael Eddleston

134 Animals Hazardous to Humans XXX

David A Warrell

134.1 Venomous Marine Animals XXX

David A Warrell

134.2 Leeches (Phylum Annelida, Class Hirudinea) XXX

David A Warrell

134.3 Fish Capable of Inflicting Serious Trauma XXX

David A Warrell

134.4 Lizards XXX

David A Warrell

134.5 Snakes XXX

David A Warrell

134.6 Bats XXX

David A Warrell

135 Pentastomiasis XXX

David A Warrell

136 Injurious Arthropods XXX

David A Warrell

136.1 Hypersensitization and Anaphylaxis Caused by Stings of Hymenopteran Insects (Bees, Wasps, Yellow Jackets, Hornets, Ants) XXX

David A Warrell

136.2 Bites by Other Insects Resulting in Irritation, Allergy and Transmission of Infections XXX

David A Warrell

136.3 Invasive Larvae of Flies (Myiasis) and Fleas (Tungiasis) XXX

David A Warrell

136.4 Superficial Infestations by Ectoparasitic Arthropods: Fleas, Lice, Mites and Ticks XXX

David A Warrell

136.5 Envenoming by Arthropods XXX

David A Warrell

PART 8
NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS AND DEFICIENCY DISEASES

137 General Principles XXX

Benjamin Caballero

Wafaie Fawzi

138 Protein-energy Malnutrition in Children XXX

Tahmeed Ahmed

M Iqbal Hossain

Munirul Islam

AM Shamsir Ahmed

M Jobayer Chisti

139 Vitamin Deficiencies XXX

Jeffrey K Griffiths

140 Mineral Deficiencies XXX

Anuraj H Shankar

PART 9
VECTOR TRANSMISSION OF DISEASES AND ZOONOSES

141 Arthopods in Disease Transmission XXX

Duane J Gubler

PART 10 THE SICK RETURNING TRAVELER

142 General Principles XXX

David R Hill

143 Fever in the Returned Traveler XXX

Victoria Johnston

Michael Brown

144 Malaria in Returned Traveler XXX

David G Lalloo

145 Screening the Asymptomatic Long-term Traveler XXX

Vanessa Field

146 Persistent Diarrhea in the Returned Traveler XXX

Stephen G Wright

147 Skin Lesions in Returning Travelers XXX

Eric Caumes

148 Eosinophilia in Migrants and Returned Travelers:
A Practical Approach XXX

Anna M Checkley

Christopher JM Whitty

149 Immigrant Medicine XXX

Sandra K Schumacher

Elizabeth D Barnett

150 International Adoption XXX

Cynthia R Howard

151 Medical Tourism XXX

Stephen T Green

152 Transplant Patients and Tropical Diseases XXX

Neha Nanda

Frank J Bia

153 Delusional Parasitosis XXX

Kathryn N Suh

Jay S Keystone

PART 11
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF PARASITIC DISEASES

154 General Principles XXX

John H Cross (deceased)

Brett E Swierczewski

154.1 Preparation of Samples for Morphologic Diagnosis of Parasites in Stool and Urine Specimens XXX

John H Cross (deceased)

Brett E Swierczewski

154.2 Examination of Blood, Other Body Fluids, Tissues and Sputum XXX

Brett E Swierczewski

John H Cross (deceased)

PART 12
DRUGS USED IN TROPICAL MEDICINE

Mebendazole XXX

Allyson K Bloom

Edward T Ryan

Albendazole XXX

Allyson K Bloom

Edward T Ryan

Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs XXX

Sonya S Shin

Kwonjune J Seung

Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) XXX

LeAnne M Fox

Amy D Klion

Ivermectin XXX

Philip J Cooper

Thomas B Nutman

Pentavalent Antimony XXX

Alan J Magill

Pentamidine XXX

Allyson K Bloom

Edward T Ryan

Nitazoxanide XXX

Allyson K Bloom

Edward T Ryan

Dapsone XXX

Allyson K Bloom

Edward T Ryan

Index XXX