Fetal and Neonatal Physiology, Expert Consult - Online and Print, 2-Volume Set, 4th Edition

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology

4th Edition Expert Consult - Online and Print, 2-Volume Set

By Richard A. Polin, MD, William T. Speck Professor of Pediatrics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University; Director, Division of Neonatology, Morgan Stanley Children?s Hospital of New York - Presbyterian, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York and Steven H. Abman, MD, Professor of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine; Director, Pediatric Heart Lung Center, Children?s Hospital Colorado, Denver, Colorado

I. Genetics: Genetics

II. Embryology: Embryology ? Regulation of Embryogenesis ? Pathophysiology of Congenital Malformations

III. The Placenta: Placental Development ? Regulation of the Placental Circulation ? Mechanisms of Transfer Across the Human Placenta ? Endocrine and Paracrine Function of the Human Placenta ? Placental Proteins ? Placental Separation at Birth ? Multiple Pregnancy

IV. Developmental Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics: Basic Pharmacologic Principles ? Basic Pharmacokinetic Principles ? Physiochemical and Structural Properties Regulating Placental Drug Transfer ? Genetic Regulation of Drug Metabolism ? Drug Distribution During Fetal Life ? Drug Protein Binding During Development ? Development of Renal Excretion of Drugs During Ontogeny ? Pharmacodynamics and Receptor Sensitivity During Development ? Drug Abuse During Fetal and Neonatal Life ? Sympathoadrenal Mechanisms During Development ? Developmental Neuropharmacology ? Physiologic Differences of Clinical Significance ? Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in the Newborn ? Drug Excretion during Lactation

V.Intrauterine Growth: Intrauterine Growth and Nutrition

VI. Postnatal Growth and Nutrition: Infant Growth in the First Year of Life ? Endocrine and Other Factors Affecting Growth ? Water Requirements ? Energy Requirements ? Protein Requirements ? Carbohydrate Requirements ? Fat Metabolism and Requirements ? Mineral and Trace Element Requirements ? Vitamin Requirements ? Human Milk Composition and Function in the Infant ? Types and Methods of Feeding for Infants ? Nutritional Assessment ? Growth Outcome of Critically Ill Neonates

VII. Perinatal Iron, Trace Minerals, and Vitamin Metabolism: Iron Metabolism during Fetal and Neonatal Life ? Trace Element Metabolism in the Fetus and Neonate ? Metabolism of Vitamin A and Water Soluble Vitamins During Fetal and Neonatal Life ? Vitamin E Metabolism in the Fetus and Neonate ? Vitamin K Metabolism during the Fetal and Neonatal Periods

VIII. Lipid Metabolism in the Fetus and Newborn: Placental Transport of Free Fatty Acids, Glycerol, and Ketone Bodies ? Lipid Accretion in the Fetus and Newborn ? Brown Adipose Tissue: Development and Function ? Lipids and an Energy Source for the Premature and Full-Term Neonate ? Ketone Body Production and Metabolism in the Fetus and Newborn ? Very Long Chain Fatty Acids in the Developing Retina and Brain ? Physiological Effects of Lipid Infusions ? Developmental Physiology of Lipoproteins and Cholesterol ? Lipoprotein Lipase

IX. Carbohydrate Metabolism: Metabolism of Glucose and Methods of Investigation in the Fetus and Newborn ? Maternal Metabolism During Pregnancy ? Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Fetus ? Role of Glucoregulatory Hormones on Hepatic Glucose Metabolism During the Perinatal Period ? Cell Glucose Transport and Glucose Handling During Fetal and Neonatal Development ? Glucose Metabolism During the Transition to Postnatal Life ? Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia in the Newborn

X. Protein Metabolism: General Concepts of Protein Metabolism ? Fetal Requirements and Placental Transfer of Nitrogenous Compounds ? Nitrogen Sources for the Newborn ? Protein Metabolism in the Newborn ? Protein and Amino Acid Requirements ? Modification of Protein Metabolism Because of Disease

XI. Thermoregulation: Perinatal Thermal Physiology ? Neonatal Thermal Physiology ? Physics and Physiology of Human Incubation ? Temperature Measurement in the Preterm Newborn ? Incubator Management

XII. Skin: Structural and Biochemical Organogenesis of Skin and Cutaneous Appendages in the Fetus and Newborn ? Development of the Cutaneous Circulation ? Composition of Skin Lipids ? Sweating in the Neonate ? pH Patterns in Newborn Skin ? Skin Barrier Function ? Bacterial Colonization of the Skin of the Newborn

XIII. Fetal and Neonatal Cardiovascular Physiology: Development of the Fetal Heart ? Molecular Development of the Heart ? Role of Peptide Growth Factors in Cardiovascular Development ? Fetal and Neonatal Cardiovascular Physiologic Development ? Developmental Electrophysiology in the Fetus and Neonate ? Developmental Biology of the Pulmonary Vasculature ? Development of the Pulmonary Circulation: Metabolic Aspects ? Development of the Gastrointestinal Circulation in the Fetus and Newborn ? Regulation of the Fetal Cerebral Circulation ? Autonomic and Central Neuroregulation of Fetal Cardiovascular Function ? Endocrine Regulation of the Fetal Circulation ? Nitric Oxide and the Perinatal Circulation ? Regulation of Umbilical Blood Flow ? Fetal and Placental Circulation During Labor ? Cardiovascular Diagnosis in the Fetus and the Effects of Congenital Heart Lesions on Developing Physiology ? Response of the Fetal Circulation to Stress ? Fetal and Neonatal Congestive Heart Failure ? Physiology of Resuscitation

XIV. The Lung: Normal and Abnormal Structural Development of the Lung ? Fetal and Neonatal Lung-liquid Balance ? Functional Development of the Upper Airway ? Functional Development of the Lower Airway ? Functional Development of Respiratory Muscles ? Mechanics of Breathing ? Pulmonary Gas Exchange in the Developing Lung ? Oxygen Transport and Delivery ? Control of Breathing in Fetal Life and Onset and Control of Breathing in the Neonate ? Pathophysiology of Apnea of Prematurity ? Evaluation of Pulmonary Function in the Neonate ? Pathophysiology of Hyaline Membrane Disease (Excluding Surfactant) ? Pathophysiology of Lung Injury and Repair: Special Features of the Immature Lung ? Pathophysiology of Chronic Lung Disease ? Physiologic Effects of Conventional Mechanical Ventilation ? Physiology of High Frequency Ventilation ? Liquid Ventilation ? Physiology of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

XV. Pulmonary Surfactant: Historical Perspective ? Composition of Pulmonary Surfactant Lipids and Proteins ? Biophysical Activities of Pulmonary Surfactant ? Lung Morphogenesis: Formation and Function of the Alveolar Surface Layer ? Regulation of Surfactant-associated Phospholipid Synthesis and Secretion ? Pathophysiology of Respiratory Distress Syndrome ? Hormonal Therapy for Prevention of Respiratory Distress Syndrome ? Surfactant Replacement Therapy

XVI. Physiology Of The Gastrointestinal Tract in the Fetus and Neonate: Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Human Gastrointestinal Development ? Organogenesis, Innervation, and Histologic Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract ? Development of the Enteric Nervous System ? Development of Gastric Secretory Function ? Development of Intestinal and Colonic Motility ? Motility of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract in the Fetus and Neonate ? Development of Exocrine Pancreatic Function ? Digestive and Absorptive Function in the Fetus and Infant ? Pathophysiology of Gastroesophageal Reflux ? Pathophysiology and Epidemiology of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

XVII. Liver and Bilirubin Metabolism: Organogenesis and Histologic Development of the Liver ? Fetal and Postnatal Hepatic Vasculature and Blood Flow ? Bile Acid Metabolism during Development ? Bile Secretion and its Control in the Mature and Immature Organism ? Hepatic Disposition of Xenobiotics during Prenatal and Early Postnatal Development ? Bilirubin Metabolism and Toxicity in the Newborn ? Pathophysiology of Breast-Milk Jaundice ? Phototherapy for Neonatal Jaundice ? Pathophysiology of Metabolic Diseases of the Liver ? Pathogenesis of Neonatal Cholestasis ? Evaluation of Liver Function

XVIII. The Kidney: Embryogenesis and Anatomic Development of the Kidney ? Renal Function in Utero ? Postnatal Maturation of Renal Blood Flow ? Development of the Renin-Angiotensin System ? Postnatal Development of Glomerular Filtration ? Measurement of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Neonates ? Renal Transport of Sodium During Early Development ? Potassium Transport in Early Development ? Transport of Calcium and Phosphorus ? Transport of Amino Acids During Early Development ? Developmental Aspects of Organic Acid Transport ? Concentration of the Urine ? Dilution of the Urine ? Urinary Acidification ? The Response to Nephron Loss in Early Development ? Regulation of Blood Pressure During Fetal and Newborn Life ? Clinical Significance of Developmental Renal Physiology ? Pathophysiology of Acute Renal Failure in the Neonatal Period ? Continuous Hemofiltration in Neonates

XIX. Fluid and Electrolyte Metabolism: Fluid Distribution in the Fetus and Neonate ? Fetal and neonatal Body Fluid Composition with Reference to Growth and Development ? Colloid Pressure and Osmoregulation in the Pregnant Woman, Fetus, and Neonate ? Regulation of Acid-Base Balance in the Fetus and Neonate ? Hydrops Fetalis and Other Causes of Neonatal Edema and Ascites

XX. Hematopoiesis and Granulopoiesis: Developmental Biology of the Hematopoietic Growth Factors ? Developmental Granulopoiesis ? Developmental Erythropoiesis ? Developmental Megakaryocytopoiesis

XXI. Hemostasis: Normal Hemostasis in the Newborn: Plasmatic Factors ? Normal Hemostasis in the Newborn: Cellular Factors, Platelets, and the Vessel Wall ? Pathophysiology of Bleeding Disorders in the Newborn ? Pathophysiology of Neonatal Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Thrombosis

XXII. Developmental Immunobiology: Host Defense Mechanisms Against Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses, and Nonviral Intracellular Pathogens ? T-Cell Development ? B-Cell Development ? Mononuclear Phagocyte System ? Neutrophil Function in Newborn Infants ? The Complement System in the Fetus and Newborn ? Cytokines and the Inflammatory Response ? Integrins and Cell Adhesion Molecules ? Stimulus-Response Coupling ? Fetal and Neonatal Wound Healing ? Immunology of the Breast and Host Immunity ? Amniotic Fluid Host Defense Mechanisms ? Host Defense Mechanisms in the Lung

XXIII. Neurology: Development of the Nervous System ? Development of the Blood-Brain Barrier ? Development of Neurotransmitters ? Biochemistry of Hypoxic-ischemic Brain Injury ? Perinatal Brain Metabolism and Prevention of Asphyxial Injury ? Developmental Biochemistry: Studies in vivo with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ? Electroencephalography in the Premature and Full-term Infant ? Development of Tone and Reflexes in the Fetus and Newborn ? Cerebral Blood Flow in Premature Infants: regulation, Measurement, and Pathophysiology of Intraventricular Hemorrhage ? Intraventricular Hemorrhage in the Premature Infant: Morphologic Characteristics ? Deleterious Effects of Intrauterine Drug Exposure of the Nervous System ? Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Brain Development ? Ontogenesis of Striated Muscle

XXIV. Special Sensory Systems in the Fetus and Neonate: Development of Touch, Pain, and Temperature Sensation in the Fetus and Neonate ? Anatomical and Functional Development of the Eye and Pathophysiology of Retinopathy of Prematurity ? Anatomical and Functional Development of Hearing ? Development of Taste and Smell in the Neonate

XXV. Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Metabolism: Calcium-Regulating Hormones ? Calcium, phosphorus, and Magnesium Transport Across the Placenta ? Neonatal Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Homeostasis ? Pathophysiology of Neonatal Hypocalcemia ? Osteopenia of Rickets of Prematurity

XVI. Orthopedics: Growth Plate: Structure and Physiology ? Intrauterine Compression Syndromes: Effects of Mechanics on Endochondral Ossification ? Defective Limb Embryology ? Congenital Vertebral Anomalies and their Sequelae ? The Congenital Muscle Diseases ? Skeletal Dysplasia and Dwarfism: Physiology and Pathophysiology ? Pathophysiology of Neonatal Osteomyelitis and Septic Arthritis ? Standards and Measurements: Fetus and Neonate

XVII. The Pituitary: Neurosecretions and Neurotransmitters of the Fetal Hypothalamus ? Growth Factors and Development ? Growth Hormone and Prolactin ? LH and FSH Secretion in the Fetus and Newborn ? Development of the Corticotropin-releasing Factor ACTH/Beta Endorphin System in the Mammalian Fetus ? Fetal and Neonatal Neuropophyseal Hormones

XXVIII. The Fetal and Neonatal Adrenal and Fetal Thyroid Systems: Fetal and Neonatal Adrenocortical Physiology ? Fetal and Neonatal Thyroid Physiology

XXIX. The Ovary and Testis: Sex Determination ? Germ Cells and the Indifferent Gonad ? Differentiation of the Ovary ? Testicular Development ? Testicular Descent