Small Animal Medical Differential Diagnosis, A Book of Lists

Small Animal Medical Differential Diagnosis

A Book of Lists

By Mark Thompson, DVM, DABVP (Canine and Feline), Brevard Animal Hospital, Brevard, NC, USA


Part One ? CLINICAL SIGNS APPROACH TO DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

1. Abdominal Distention

2. Abdominal Effusions and Ascites

3. Abdominal Pain, Acute

4. Aggressive Behavior, Cats

5. Aggressive Behavior, Dogs

6. Alopecia

7. Anaphylaxis

8. Anuria and Oliguria

9. Anxiety and Phobias

10. Ascites (see Abdominal Effusions and Ascites)

11. Ataxia and Incoordination

12. Blindness

13. Bradycardia, Sinus

14. Cachexia and Muscle Wasting

15. Compulsive Behavior Disorders

16. Constipation

17. Coughing

18. Cyanosis

19. Deafness

20. Diarrhea, Acute

21. Diarrhea, Chronic

22. Dyschezia (see Tenesmus and Dyschezia)

23. Dysphagia

24. Dyspnea

25. Dysuria (see Stranguria, Dysuria, and Pollakiuria)

26. Ecchymoses (See Petechiae and Ecchymoses)

27. Edema

28. Epistaxis

29. Failure to Grow/Failure to Thrive

30. Fever of Unknown Origin

31. Flatulence

32. Gagging

33. Halitosis

34. Head Tilt

35. Hematemesis

36. Hematochezia

37. Hematuria

38. Hemoptysis

39. Hemorrhage, Prolonged

40. Horner?s Syndrome

41. Hyperthermia

42. Hypothermia

43. Icterus (Jaundice)

44. Inappropriate Elimination

45. Incontinence, Fecal

46. Incontinence, Urinary

47. Infertility, Female (Canine)

48. Infertility, Male (Canine)

49. Joint Swelling

50. Lameness

51. Lymphadenopathy (Lymph Node Enlargement)

52. Melena

53. Muscle Wasting (See Cachexia and Muscle Wasting)

54. Nasal Discharge (See Sneezing and Nasal Discharge)

55. Nystagmus

56. Obesity

57. Oliguria (See Anuria and Oliguria)

58. Pallor

59. Paresis and Paralysis

60. Petechiae and Ecchymoses

61. Pollakiuria (see Stranguria, Dysuria, and Pollakiuria)

62. Polyuria and Polydipsia

63. Pruritus

64. Ptyalism (Excessive Salivation)

65. Regurgitation

66. Seizure

67. Sneezing and Nasal Discharge

68. Stertor and Stridor

69. Stranguria, Dysuria, and Pollakiuria

70. Stomatitis

71. Stupor and Coma

72. Syncope

73. Tachycardia

74. Tenesmus and Dyschezia

75. Tremor

76. Urine, Discolored

77. Urticaria

78. Vision Loss, Sudden (see Blindness)

79. Vomiting

80. Weakness

81. Weight Gain (See Obesity)

82. Weight Loss (See Cachexia and Muscle Wasting)

Part TWO ? SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

Section I ? CARDIOPULMONARY DISORDERS

1. Diseases or Clinical Signs Associated with Systemic Hypertension

2. Causes of Sinus Tachycardia

3. Causes of Sinus Bradycardia

4. Differential Diagnosis for Pericardial Effusion

5. Causes of Chronic Heart Failure

6. Clinical Features of Cardiac Murmurs

7. Grading of Heart Murmurs

8. Differential Diagnosis for Common Arrhythmias

9. Differential Diagnosis for Cardiomegaly

10. Classification Systems for Heart Failure Severity

11. Clinical Signs of Left- and Right-Sided Heart Failure

12. Breed Predispositions for Congenital Heart Disease

13. Clinical Signs of Heartworm disease

14. Differential Diagnosis for Myocardial Disease in Dogs

15. Differential Diagnosis for Feline Myocardial Disease

16. Clinical Findings in Cats with Arterial Thromboembolism

17. Potential Complications of Chronic Atrioventricular Valve Disease

18. Differential Diagnosis for Laryngeal and Pharyngeal Disease

19. Potential Causes of Laryngeal Paralysis

20. Differential Diagnosis for Lower Respiratory Tract Disease

21. Causes of Pulmonary Edema

22. Differential Diagnosis for Mediastinal Disease

23. Differential Diagnosis for Pleural Effusion

24. Diagnostic criteria for Chylothorax

25. Potential Clinical Features of Pulmonary Hypertension

26. Potential Causes of Pulmonary Thromboembolism

27. Differential Diagnosis for Pulmonary Disease Based on Radiographic Patterns

Section II - DERMATOLOGIC DISORDERS

28. Differential Diagnosis for Pyoderma

29. Differential Diagnosis for Folliculitis

30. Differential Diagnosis for Erosions/Ulceration of Canine Skin or Mucus

31. Membranes

32. Differential Diagnosis for Erosions/Ulceration of Feline Skin or Mucous Membranes

33. Classification of Parasitic Dermatoses

34. Differential Diagnosis for Change in Skin Pigmentation

35. Causes, Predisposing, and Perpetuating Factors of Chronic Otitis Externa

36. Clinical Features of Allergic Skin Disease

37. Causes of Endocrine Alopecia

38. Clinical Features of Endocrine Alopecia

Section III - ENDOCRINOLOGY and METABOLISM DISORDERS

39. Potential Factors in the Etiopathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus

40. Differential Diagnosis for Hyperglycemia

41. Clinicopathologic Abnormalities Found in Uncomplicated Diabetes Mellitus

42. Potential Clinical Features of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

43. Potential Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

44. Causes of Insulin Resistance or Ineffectiveness in Dogs and Cats

45. Differential Diagnosis for Hypoglycemia

46. Clinical Signs Associated with Insulin-Secreting Tumors

47. Potential Clinical Features of Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing?s Syndrome)

48. Potential Clinical Features of Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison?s Disease)

49. Complications of Corticosteroid Therapy

50. Differential Diagnosis of Hyponatremia/Hyperkalemia

51. Differential Diagnosis for Diabetes Insipidus

52. Causes of Diabetes Insipidus

53. Potential Clinical Features of Hypothyroidism

54. Clinical Signs of Cretinism

55. Potential Clinical Features of Feline Hyperthyroidism

56. Potential Clinical Features of Primary Hyperparathyroidism

57. Potential Clinical Features of Hypoparathyroidism

58. Potential Clinical Features of Pheochromocytoma

59. Differential Diagnosis for Adrenal Tumors

60. Potential Clinical Features of Acromegaly

61. Potential Clinical Features of Pituitary Dwarfism

62. Potential Clinical Features of Gastrinoma (Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome)

63. Potential Clinical Features of Glucagonoma

64. Differential Diagnosis for Insulin-Secreting -Cell Neoplasia

Section IV ? GASTROENTEROLOGIC DISORDERS

65. Differential Diagnosis for Dental and Oral Cavity Diseases

66. Differential Diagnosis for Salivary Gland Disease

67. Differential Diagnosis for Esophageal Disease

68. Differential Diagnosis for Disorders of the Stomach

69. Clinical Signs of Small Intestinal Disease

70. Causes of Ileus

71. Differentiating Between Small and Large Bowel Diarrhea

72. Causes of Bacterial Overgrowth

73. Differential for Malabsorption and Maldigestion Syndromes

74. Differential Diagnosis for Protein-Losing Enteropathy

75. Differential Diagnosis for Small Intestinal Disease

76. Differential Diagnosis for Large Intestinal Disease

77. Differential Diagnosis for Perianal Disease

78. Breed Susceptibilities to Small Intestinal Disease in Dogs

79. Causes of Acute Abdomen

80. Causes of Fecal Incontinence

Section V - HEMATOLOGIC DISORDERS

81. Differential Diagnosis for Regenerative Anemia

82. Differential Diagnosis for Nonregenerative Anemia

83. Some Causes or Triggers of Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia

84. Differentiating Blood Loss from Hemolytic Anemia

85. Diagnosis of Nonregenerative Anemia

86. Differential Diagnosis for Thrombocytopenia

87. Differential Diagnosis for Platelet Dysfunction

88. Differential Diagnosis for Polycythemia

89. Differential Diagnosis for Inherited and Acquired Coagulopathies

90. Differential Diagnosis for Leukocyte Disorders

91. Differential Diagnosis for Splenomegaly

92. Infectious Causes of Splenitis/Splenomegaly

Section VI ? IMMUNOLOGIC and IMMUNE MEDIATED DISORDERS

93. Organs and Tissues Affected by Systemic Lupus Erythematosis

94. Criteria for the Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Dogs and Cats

95. Function of Different Components of the Immune System

96. Laboratory Diagnosis of Immune Mediated Disease

97. Differential Diagnosis for Immune-Mediated Arthritis

98. Differential Diagnosis for Autoimmune Skin Diseases

Section VII ? INFECTIOUS DISEASE

99. Differential Diagnosis for Polysystemic Bacterial Diseases

100. Clinical Features of Canine Ehrlichiosis

101. Clinical Features of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

102. Nomenclature of Obligate Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens

103. Clinical Features of Canine Bartonellosis

104. Common Viral Diseases of Dogs

105. Clinical Features of Canine Distemper Virus

106. Clinical Features of Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP; feline coronavirus)

107. Clinical Features of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

108. Clinical Features of Feline Leukemia Virus

109. Other Feline Viral Diseases

110. Clinical Features of Selected Polysystemic Protozoal Diseases

111. Clinical Features of Selected Systemic Mycoses

112. Clinical Features of Sepsis and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)

Section VIII - JOINT AND BONE DISORDERS

113. Differential Diagnosis for Infectious Arthritis

114. Differential Diagnosis for Congenital, Developmental and Genetic Bone Disorders

115. Differential Diagnosis for Metabolic, Nutritional, Endocrine, and Idiopathic Bone Disorders

Section IX - LIVER AND EXOCRINE PANCREAS DISORDERS

116. Clinical and Physical Features or Hepatobiliary Disease

117. Differential Diagnosis for Hepatomegaly and Microhepatica

118. Causes of Elevated Serum Hepatobiliary Enzymes

119. Differential Diagnosis for Hepatobiliary Disease in Dogs

120. Differential Diagnosis for Hepatobiliary Disease in Cats

121. Causes of Hepatic Encephalopathy

122. Causes of Feline Hepatic Lipidosis

123. Clinical Features of Congenital Portosystemic Shunt

124. Differential Diagnosis for Canine Vacuolar Hepatopathy

125. Comparative Clinical Signs for Suppurative and Lymphocytic Cholangitis and Cholangiohepatitis in Cats

126. Differential Diagnosis for Gallbladder and Extrahepatic Biliary Disease

127. Potential Clinical Features of Gallbladder and Biliary Tract Disease

128. Differential Diagnosis for Disease of the Exocrine Pancreas

129. Clinical Signs of Acute Pancreatitis

130. Factors Predisposing to Pancreatitis

131. Clinical Signs of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

132. Differential Diagnosis for Hyperlipidemia

133. Clinical Features of Hyperlipidemia

Section X - NEOPLASIA

134. Classification of Hematopoietic Tumors

135. Common Differential Diagnoses for Lymphoma

136. Common Skin and Subcutaneous Tumors

137. Classification of Soft Tissue Sarcomas

138. Clinical Features of Hemangiosarcomas

139. Classification of Bone and Joint Tumors

140. Clinical Features of Canine Mast Cell Disease

141. Classification of Canine and Feline Histiocytic Disease

142. Classification of Urogenital Tumors

143. Classification of Paraneoplastic Syndromes

144. Differential Diagnosis for Tumors of the Oral Cavity

145. Classification and Clinical Features of Thyroid Neoplasia

146. Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicities

Section XI ? NEUROLOGIC AND NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS

147. Components of the Neurologic Exam

148. Examination of the Cranial Nerves

149. Localization of Spinal Cord Lesions

150. Lesion Localization for Ataxia, Paresis, Paralysis

151. Differential Diagnosis for Peripheral Neuropathies

152. Differential Diagnosis for Congenital and Hereditary Brain Disease

153. Differential Diagnosis for Inflammatory Disease of the Nervous System

154. Differential Diagnosis for Common Intracranial Neoplasms

155. Differential Diagnosis for Common Spinal Cord Diseases

156. Differential Diagnosis for Head Tilt

157. Clinical Features of Vestibular Disease

158. Neurologic Manifestations of Systemic Diseases

159. Clinical Features of Myasthenia Gravis

160. Differential Diagnosis for Myositis and Myopathies

161. Clinical Signs of Cognitive Dysfunction

Section XII ? OCULAR DISORDERS (Systemic Manifestations)

162. Ocular Manifestations of Systemic Diseases (Surface Ocular Disease)

163. Ocular Manifestations of System Diseases (Uveal Tract, Lens, and Fundus)

164. Differential Diagnosis for Acute Vision Loss in Dogs and Cats

Section XIII ? TOXICOLOGIC DISORDERS

165. Common Plant Toxicoses

166. Common Chemical Toxicoses

167. Venomous Bites and Stings

Section XIV ? UROGENITAL DISORDERS

168. Forms of Glomerular Disease Described in Dogs and Cats

169. Differential Diagnosis for Diseases Associated with Glomerular Disease in Dogs

170. Differential Diagnosis for Diseases Associated with Glomerular Disease in Cats

171. Clinical Features of Urinary Tract Infection

172. Differential Diagnosis for Prostatic Disease

173. Familial Renal Disease of Dogs and Cats

174. Differential Diagnosis for Renal Tubular Disease

175. Differential Diagnosis for Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

176. Differential Diagnosis for Canine Lower Urinary Tract Disease

177. Characteristics of Common Canine Uroliths

178. Clinical Features of Bacterial Pyelonephritis in Dogs and Cats

179. Potential Causes of Acute Renal Failure in Dogs and Cats

180. Potential Renal Toxins in Dogs and Cats

181. Potential Causes of Chronic Renal Failure in Dogs and Cats

182. Differential Diagnosis for Ureteral Disease

183. Differential Diagnosis for Vaginal Discharge

184. Differential Diagnosis for Canine Male Infertility

185. Common Drugs and Metabolic Disorders Affecting Male Reproduction

186. Differential Diagnosis for Canine Female Infertility

187. Differential Diagnosis for Disorders of the Penis, Prepuce, and Testes

Part THREE ? LABORATORY VALUES AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

1. Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody

2. Activated Coagulation Time (ACT)

3. Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT)

4. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Endogenous

5. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Stimulation Test

6. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, formerly SGPT)

7. Albumin

8. Alkaline Phosphatase, Serum (SAP)

9. Amylase, Serum

10. Anion Gap

11. Antinuclear Antibody (ANA)

12. Arterial Blood Gases

13. Arthrocentesis (Joint)Fluid

14. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST, formerly SGOT)

15. Basophil Count

16. Bicarbonate (HCO3-)

17. Bile Acids

18. Bilirubin

19. Buccal Mucosal Bleeding Time (BMBT)

20. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

21. Calcium

22. Cerebrospinal Fluid

23. Chloride

24. Cholesterol

25. Cholinesterase

26. Cobalamin

27. Complete Blood Count (CBC)

28. Coomb?s Test

29. Cortisol (Urine)/Creatinine Ratio

30. Cortisol

31. Creatine Kinase

32. Creatinine

33. Dexamethasone Suppression Tests

34. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC), Diagnostic Tests

35. Erythrocyte Count (RBC, Red Blood Cell Count)

36. Eosinophil Count

37. Folate

38. Fructosamine

39. Gamma Glutamyltransferase (GGT)

40. Globulin

41. Glucose

42. Glucose Tolerance Test

43. Glycosylated Hemoglobin

44. Heartworm Antigen, Canine

45. Heartworm Antigen, Feline

46. Heartworm Antibody, eline

47. Hematocrit (Packed Cell Volume, PCV)

48. Hemoglobin

49. Hemolysis, Prevention in Laboratory Samples

50. Immunoassays

51. Insulin

52. Iron-Binding Capacity (Total)/ Ferritin

53. Lipase

54. Lymphocyte Count

55. Magnesium

56. Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)

57. Methemoglobinemia

58. Monocyte Count

59. Myoglobinuria

60. Osmolality

61. Neutrophil Count

62. Packed Cell Volume (See Hematocrit)

63. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)/ Ionized Calcium

64. Platelet Count

65. Phosphorus

66. Potassium

67. Protein, Total

68. Prothrombin Time (P)

69. Red Cell Count (See Erythrocyte Count)

70. Reticulocyte Count

71. Sodium

72. Thoracocentesis Fluid

73. Toxoplasmosis Antibody Titer

74. Thyroid Function Tests

75. Thrombocyte Count (See Platelet Count)

76. Triglycerides

77. Trypsinogen-Like Immunoreactivity (TLI)

78. Pancreatic Lipase Immunoreactivity (PLI)

79. Von Wille

80. White Blood Cell Count

81. Von Willebrand Factor

82. Urinalysis