Part 1. Background Optical Principles. Schematic Eyes, Emmetropia and Ametropia. Emmetropia and Ametropia. The Correction of Spherical Ametropia. The Basic terinal Image. Spectacle Magnification and the Corrected Retinal Image. Astigmatism. Retinoscopy. Visual Acuity and the Measurement of Visual Function. Subjective Refraction: Principles and Techniques for the Correction of Spherical Ametropia. Subjective Refraction: Principles and Techniques for the Correction of Astigmatic Ametropia. Binocular Balancing and Binoculer Refraction. Accommodation and Presbyopia. Determination of the Near Addition. Convergence. Automated Methods of Refraction.
Part 2. The Correction of Refractive Errors Using Contact Lenses. Measurement of the Cornea: The Keratometer and Beyond. Ray-tracing Through RGP Contact Lenses and Contact Lens-Tear Lens Systems. Spectacle Magnification and Relative Spectacle Magnification. Contact Lens Materials: Physical and Optical Properties. The Correction of Astigmatism with Rigid Gas Permeable Contact Lenses. The Correction of Astigmatism with Soft Contact Lenses. Ray-tracing Through Soft Contact Lenses and Soft Contact Lens Hydration Factors. The Correction of Presbyopia with Contact Lenses. Over-refraction Techniques in Contact Lens Practice. Accommodation and Convergence: Spectacles vs Contact Lenses. Accommodation and Convergence: Spectacles versus Contact Lenses. The Axial and Radial Edge Thicknesses of a Contact Lens. Contact Lens Verification. Binoculer Vision: The Basics. Binocular Vision Considerations in Contact Lens Practice.