Restless Legs Syndrome

Restless Legs Syndrome

By Wayne A. Hening, MD, PhD, Clinical Assistant Professor of Neurology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ; Richard Allen, PhD, Research Associate, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins Center for RLS, Baltimore, MD, USA; Sudhansu Chokroverty, MD, FRCP, FACP, Professor of Neurology, New York Medical College, Valhalla; Clinical Professor of Neurology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ; Associate Chairman of Neurology, Chairman of Neurophysiology, and Director, Center of Sleep Medicine, Saint Vincents Hospital and Medical Center, NY; and Christopher Earley, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA


I. Introduction

1. General Introduction: Restless Legs Syndrome as a Neurological Conundrum, Werner Poewe

2. Introduction: The Patient?s Perspective, Robert Balkam

3. From 1685 to 2008: An Introduction to the Restless Legs Syndrome, Allison Chan and Christian Guilleminault

4. Introduction: Restless Legs Syndrome as a Movement Disorder, Stanley Fahn

5 Restless Legs Syndrome and Nocturnal Myoclonus (Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep): An Historical Review, Elio Lugaresi and Federica Provini

6 Introduction: Clinical Science of Restless Legs Syndrome, Sudhansu Chokroverty

II. Basic Science of Restless Legs Syndrome

A. Epidemiology and Genetics

7 The Epidemiology of Restless Legs Syndrome, Klaus Berger and Tobias Kurth

8 Genetics of Restless Legs Syndrome, Lan Xiong, Gustavo Turecki, Anastasia Levchenko, Claudia Gaspar, Wayne A. Hening, Jacques Montplaisir, Guy A. Rouleau

B. Pathophysiology

9 The Iron Metabolic System, Stacey L. Clardy, James R. Connor, and John Beard

10 Iron Dysregulation in Restless Legs Syndrome, Christopher J. Earley

11 The Brain?s Dopamine Systems and their Relevance to Restless Legs Syndrome, A. A. Freeman and D. B. Rye

12 Neuroimaging in Restless Legs Syndrome, Claudia Trenkwalder and Christopher J. Earley

13 Circadian Rhythm of Restless Legs Syndrome, Diego Garcia-Borreguero and Wayne A. Hening

14 Spinal Cord, Dopamine, Opiates and Restless Legs Syndrome, W. Paulus and E.D. Schomburg

III. Clinical Science of RLS

A. Diagnosis

15 Diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome, Richard P. Allen

16 Differential Diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome, Sudhansu Chokroverty

17 Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep (PLMS), Federica Provini, Roberto Vetrugno, Pasquale Montagna, and Raffaele Ferri

18 Sleep Laboratory Diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome, Jacques Montplaisir, Martin Michaud, Marie-Hélène Pennestri, and Paola Lanfranchi

19 Actigraph Assessment of Periodic Leg Movements (PLM) and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), Richard P. Allen and Wayne A. Hening

20 Assessment of Restless Legs Syndrome Features with Standardized Methods, Heike Benes and Ralf Kohnen

B. Co-Morbidities and Special Populations

21 Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder in Childhood and Adolescence, Daniel L. Picchietti and Arthur S. Walters

22 Restless Legs Syndrome and Pregnancy, Mauro Manconi and Luigi Ferini-Strambi

23 Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movements in the Elderly with and without Dementia, Donald L. Bliwise

24 Restless Legs Syndrome in Medical Disorders, John W. Winkelman and Jan Ulfberg

25 Restless Legs Syndrome in Neurological Disorders, William Ondo and Michael Polydefkis

26 Is the Manifestation of the Restless Legs Syndrome Related to a Pain Mechanism?, Danièle Laverdure-Dupont, Gilles Lavigne, Jacques Montplaisir, and Peter Soja

27 Restless Legs Syndrome and Psychiatric Disorders, Hochang Ben Lee and Wayne A. Hening

C. Management

28 Overview of Management, Wayne A. Hening

29 Non-Pharmacologic Considerations and Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome, Mark J. Buchfuhrer and Jill Gunzel

30 Dopaminergic Therapy of Restless Legs Syndrome, Michael H. Silber and Richard P. Allen

31 Opioid Agents in the Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome, Phillip M. Becker

32 The Use of Anti-convulsants in Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome, Diego Garcia-Borreguero and Mark Buchfuhrer

33 Iron Treatment, Christopher J. Earley

34 Additional Agents and Miscellaneous Therapies, Mark Buchfuhrer and Wayne Hening

35 Management of Restless Legs Syndrome in Hospital and during Surgery, Birgit Högl and Viola Gschliesser

36 Restless Legs Syndrome Morbidity: Sleep and Quality of Life, Richard P. Allen, Heike Benes, and Ralf Kohnen

37 History of the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation, Georgianna Bell and Pickett Guthrie
Summary, Wayne A. Hening