Handbook of Veterinary Ocular Emergencies

Handbook of Veterinary Ocular Emergencies

By David L. Williams, MA VetMB PhD CertVOpthal MRCVS, Associate lecturer, Veterinary Opthalmology, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, UK.; and Kathy Barrie, DVM DipACVO, Animal Eye Clinic, Sunshine Animal Hospital, Florida, USA.


FOREWORD

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTERS

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 How to use this book

1.2 Performing an ocular examination in an emergency situation

1.3 Recording observations made in an ocular emergency

1.4 Equipment and aids required to deal with the ocular emergency

1.5 Some preliminary notes on treatment of ocular infections

1.6 Analgesia in ocular emergencies

1.7 Dealing with ocular emergencies in horses and ruminants

1.7.1 Techniques facilitating large animal ocular examination

1.7.2 Techniques facilitating large animal ocular therapeutics

CHAPTER 2: A problem orientated approach

2.1: The red eye

2.2 The painful eye

2.3 The white eye

2.4 The suddenly blind eye

2.5 Ocular lesions in systemic disease

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF OCULAR EMERGENCIES

CHAPTER 3: ADNEXA AND ORBIT

3.1: Lid laceration

3.2 Conjunctivitis

3.3 Conjunctival foreign body

3.4 Acute keratoconjunctivitis sicca

3.5 Orbital cellulitis

3.6 Orbital space occupying lesion

CHAPTER 4: GLOBE

4.1: Blunt trauma to the globe

4.2: Globe prolapse

4.3: Penetrating globe injury

CHAPTER 5: CORNEA

5.1: Corneal ulceration

5.1.1: Is an ulcer present? - the use of ophthalmic stains

5.1.2: Three key questions regarding any corneal ulcer

5.1.2.1 Ulcer depth

5.1.2.2 Ulcer healing

5.1.2.3 The cause of the ulcer

5.2 Dealing with different ulcers

5.2.1 The simple healing superficial ulcer

5.2.2 The recurrent or persistent non-healing superficial ulcer

5.2.3 Ulceration secondary to bullous keratopathy

5.2.4 Partial thickness stromal ulceration

5.2.5 Near-penetrating ulcers, descemetocoeles and penetrating ulcers

5.2.6.1 The melting ulcer: diagnosis

5.2.6.2 The melting ulcer: diagnosis

5.3 Corneoscleral laceration

5.3.1 Defining the extent of a corneal laceration

5.3.2 Defining involvement of other ocular structures

5.3.3 Repairing a simple non-penetrating corneal laceration

5.3.4 Repairing a simple perforating corneal laceration

5.3.5 Repairing a corneal laceration complicated by iris inclusion

5.4 Corneal foreign bodies

5.4.1 Recognising a corneal foreign body

5.4.2 Dealing with a non-perforating corneal foreign body

5.4.3 Dealing with a fully penetrating corneal foreign body

5.5 Antibiotics and mydriatic cycloplegia in corneal emergencies

CHAPTER 6: IRIS

6.1 Iritis

6.1.1 Diagnosis: clinical signs

6.1.2 Diagnosis: diagnostic tests

6.1.3 Treatment: pain relief

6.1.4 Treatment: anti-inflammatory medication

6.1.5 Treatment: reducing miosis and preventing synechia formation

6.2 Change in iris appearance

CHAPTER 7: GLAUCOMA

7.1 Diagnosis: clinical signs

7.2 Diagnosis: diagnostic tests

7.3 Treatment: immediate systemic hypotensive therapy

7.4 Treatment: long-term reduction of IOP

7.5 Treatment: neuroprotection

CHAPTER 8: LENS

8.1 Lens luxation

8.2 Diabetic cataract

8.3 Lens capsule rupture and phacoanaphylactic uveitis

CHAPTER 9: RETINA AND VITREOUS

9.1 Retinal detachment

9.1.1 Examination of the animal with a retinal detachment

9.1.2 Treatment of retinal detachment secondary to hypertension

9.1.3 Treatment of retinal detachment in posterior uveitis

9.1.4 Treatment of idiopathic retinal detachment

9.2 Sudden acquired retinal degeneration (SARD)

CHAPTER 10: OPTIC NERVE

10.1 Optic neuritis

10.2 Central blindness

CHAPTER 11: CONCLUSIONS

APPENDIX:

Section 1: Diagnostic methods used in veterinary ophthalmology

Section 2: Ocular Dictionary

Section 3: Ocular Formulary