Breastfeeding, An Atlas of Diagnosis and Treatment

Breastfeeding

An Atlas of Diagnosis and Treatment

By Denise Both, Chief Editor, Lactation and Breastfeeding, European Association of Lactation Consultants; Breastfeeding and Lactation Consultant in Private Practice; and Kerri Frischknecht, Founder of the first lactation program in a Swiss Children's Hospital


1 Basic information about breastfeeding

1.1. The breast before, during and after pregnancy and lactation

1.1.1 Anatomy and physiology of the breast

1.1.2 Adolescence

1.1.3 Young, non-pregnant woman

1.1.4 Pregnant

1.1.5 Before birth

1.1.6 Lactation

1.1.7 Menopause

1.2 Normal course of breastfeeding

1.2.1 Breastfeeding initiation

1.2.2 Sequence of a breastfeed

1.2.3 Let-down reflex (milk ejection reflex)

1.2.4 Infant behavioural cues

1.2.5 Breastfeeding positions

1.3 Breastfeeding multiple infants

1.4 The older breastfed child

1.5 Tandem breastfeeding

1.6 Appearance of breast milk

1.6.1 Colostrum

1.6.2 Transitional milk

1.6.3 Mature breast milk

1.6.4 Blood in breast milk

1.7 Elimination, stool and urine output in the newborn

1.7.1 Meconium

1.7.2 Transitional stools

1.7.3 Breast milk stools

1.7.4 Stools from formula fed infants

1.7.5 Bloody stools

1.7.6 Urine

2 Breastfeeding problems and their causes

2.1 Atypical breast shapes

2.1.1 Asymmetric breasts

2.1.2 Inadequate mammary gland tissue

2.1.2 Accessory mammary gland tissue

2.1.4 Following breast surgery

2.2. Problematic nipple forms

2.2.1 Flat nipples

2.2.2 Retracted/inverted nipples

2.2.3 Small nipples

2.2.4 Large nipples

2.2.5 Bifurcated or double nipples

2.3 Pathological changes of the breast

2.3.1 Mammary gland swelling (initial engorgement)

2.3.2 Local engorgement (plugged ducts)

2.3.3 Mastitis

2.3.4 Abscess

2.3.5 Breast cancer

2.3.6 Nipple cancer (Paget?s disease of the nipple)

2.4. Pain and injury of the nipple

2.4.1 Sore nipples

2.4.2 Nipple fissures

2.4.3 Candida/thrush

2.4.4 Psoriasis

2.4.5 Allergic reactions

2.4.6 Virus infections ? Herpes

2.4.7 Raynaud?s phenomenon/vasospasm

2.4.8 Milk bleb/milk blisters

2.4.9 Bacterial infections

2.5 Lifestyle

2.5.1 Tattoos

2.5.2 Piercing

2.6 Infants with special needs

2.6.1 Prematurity

2.6.2 Respiratory problems

2.6.3 Reflux

2.6.4 Down syndrome

2.6.5 Neurological impairment

2.6.6 Cephalhaematoma (caput succedaneum)

2.6.7 Failure to thrive

2.6.8 Cleft lip, cleft of the upper alveolar ridge (gum) and palate

2.6.9 Pierre Robin sequence

2.6.10 Choanal atresia and stenosis

2.6.11 Ankyloglossia

2.6.12 Oral candidiasis

2.6.13 Neonatal icterus (jaundice)

2.6.14 Cardiac defects

2.6.15 Chylothorax

2.6.16 Haemangioma

3 Breastfeeding aids and alternative feeding methods

3.1 Aids for expressing human breast milk

3.1.1 Breast pumps

3.1.2 Breast massage

3.1.3 Equipment for transport and storage

3.2 Devices for nipples


3.2.1 Breast shells (A) for inverted nipples

3.2.2 Breast shells (B) for protection

3.2.3 Niplette

3.2.4 Nipple shields

3.3. Alternative feeding methods for the infant

3.3.1 Cup feeding

3.3.2 Soft feeder

3.3.3 Spoon

3.3.4 Pipettev
3.3.5 Supplementary nursing system

3.3.6 Finger feeding

3.3.7 Haberman Feeder (Special Needs Feeder)

3.3.8 Bottle feeding

3.3.9 Pacifiers

3.4 Personal hygiene and clothing

3.4.1 Nursing pads

3.4.2 Temperature packs

3.4.3 Ointments

3.4.4 Nursing bra

Appendix

Glossary

References

Addresses

Websites

Index

Contents