Fractures of the Facial Skeleton

Fractures of the Facial Skeleton

By Peter Banks, FRCS(Edin), FDSRCS(Eng), FFDRCSI, Honourary Consultant Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon, Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, Sussex, UK; Honorary Consultant Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon, University College London Hospitals and Eastman Dental Institute for Oral Health Care Sciences, London; Honorary Civil Consultant in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery to the Royal Air Force; and Andrew Brown, FRCS(Edin), FDSRCS(Eng), FDSRCPS(Glas), Consultant Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon, The Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, West Sussex, UK; Civil Consultant in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery to the Royal Air Force


Aetiology, surgical anatomy and classification: Aetiology; Incidence; Surgical anatomy; Classification; Emergency and early management of facial trauma: Trauma survival; Management of facial injuries; Multiple facial injuries: an overview; Clinical assessment: Dento-alveola fractures; Fractures of the mandibular; Fractures of mid-facial skeleton; Diagnostic imaging: Imaging modalities; Imaging in the general management of the patient; Specific imaging for facial bone fractures; Treatment of dento-alveolar injuries: Introduction and classification; Clinical assessment; Treatment; Treatment of fractures of the mandible: Fractures of the tooth-bearing section of the mandible; Fractures of the mandible in children; Fractures of the condylar region; Fractures of the edentulous mandible; General principles of treatment of mandibular fractures; Treatment of fractures of the mid-face and upper face: General principles; Surgical approaches to fractures of the mid-face and upper face; Factures of the nasal bone; Fractures of the zygomatic complex; Fractures of the orbit; Le Fort I, II and III fractures; Fractures of the naso-ethmoid complex; Treatment of frontal sinus and craniofacial fractures; Postoperative care: Immediate postoperative phase; Intermediate postoperative care; Late complications; Complications: Delayed treatment; Complications arising during primary treatment; Late complications; Fractures associated with tissue loss: Factors affecting the wounding capacity of missiles; Principles of treatment