Diseases of the Macula

Diseases of the Macula

By Jack J. Kanski, MD, MS, FRCS, FRCOphth, Consultant Ophthalmic Surgeon, Prince Charles Eye Unit, King Edward VII Hospital, Windsor, UK; and Stan A. Milewski, MD, Assistant Clinical Professor at the University of Connecticut at Farmington, Farmington, CT


1. Introduction
- Applied anatomy
- Clinical evaluation of macular disease
- Fundus fluorescein angiography
- Fundus indocyanine green angiography
- Electrophysiological tests
- Principles of laser photocoagulation

2. Aquired macula disorders
- Age-related macular degeneration
- Senile macular hole
- Central serous retinopathy
- Cystoid macular edema
- Myopic maculopathy
- Macular epiretinal membrane
- Angiod streaks
- Choroidal folds
- Idiopathic choroidal neovascularization
- Drug-induced maculopathies
- Traumatic maculopathies
- Maculopathy and congenital optic disc anomalies
- Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

3. Retinal vascular disorders
- Diabetic retinopathy
- Retinal vein occlusion
- Retinal artery occlusion
- Ocular ischemic occlusion
- Hypertensive retinopathy
- Sickling retinopathy
- Retinal artery macroaneurysm
- Retinal telangiectasias
- Radiation retinopathy
- Purtscher retinopathy

4. Inflammatory fundus disorders
- Toxoplasmosis
- Histoplasmosis
- Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
- Sarcoidosis
- Behçet disease
- Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease
- Acquired syphilis
- Toxocariasis
- Candidiasis
- Congenital rubella
- Acute retinal necrosis
- Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy
- Serpiginous choroidopathy
- Birdshot retinochoroidopathy
- Multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis
- Punctate inner choroidopathy
- Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome
- Acute retinal pigment epithelitis
- Unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy
- Neuroretinitis
- Aculate macular neuroetinopathy
- Acute multifocal retinitis
- Progressive subretinal fibrosis & uveitis syndrome
- Acute zonal outer retinopathies

5. Hereditary Fundus Dystrophies
- Retinitis pigmentos
- Progressive cone dystrophies
- Albinism
- Congenital retinoschisis
- Stargardt disease and fundus flavimaculatus
- Vietelliform macular dystrophy
- Choroideremia
- Gyrate atrophy
- Cherry-red spot at macula syndromes
- Familial dommant drusen
- Sorsby pseudo-inflammatory macular dystrophy
- North Carolina macular dystrophy
- Butterfly dystrophy
- Dominant cystoid macular edema
- Central arcolar choroidal dystrophy
- Diffuse choroidal atophy
- Progressive bifocal chorioretinal atrophy
- Fundus albipunctatus
- Bietti crystalline dystrophy
- Alport syndrome
- Benign familial fleck retina