Essentials of Domestic Animal Embryology

Essentials of Domestic Animal Embryology

By Poul Hyttel, DVM, PhD, DVSc, Professor, Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Fred Sinowatz, vet,, Dr.habil, Professor, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, LMU Munich, Germany, Morten Vejlsted, DVM, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Large Animal Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark and Keith Betteridge, BVSc, MVSc, PhD, FRCVS, University Professor Emeritus, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada


1 Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Morphogenesis
? Cell proliferation: Cell cycle, differentiation, regulation
? Cell demise: Apoptosis
? Cytoskeleton/Extracellular Matrix/Cell-Matrix interactions
? Morphogenesis & Patterning

2 Comparative Gestation
? Distinctions of the Early Embryo, Embryonic and Fetal Periods of Gestation
? Species Variations Effecting Gestation Length: Companion, Domestic, Wildlife and Laboratory Animals
? Reproductive Cycles: Hormones, Estrous, Organs, Seasonal
? Fecundity: Survival Strategies, Conception Rates


3. Gametogenesis
? Mitosis/Meiosis
? Oogenesis
? Spermatogenesis
? Veterinary Clinical Applications/Cases

4. Fertilization
? Acrosome Reaction
? Sperm-Zona Pellucida Interactions
? Gamete Fusion
? Blocks to Polyspermy
? Syngamy and Embryo Activation
? Veterinary Clinical Applications/Cases

5. Embryo Cleavage and Blastulation
? Polarity, Compaction and Cavitation
? Embryonic Disc, Primitive Streak and Formation of the Bilaminar Embryo
? Veterinary Clinical Applications/Cases

6. Gastrulation, Body Folding and Coelom Formation
? Notocord, Neural Tube and Segmentation
? Differentiation of Ectoderm, Mesoderm and Endoderm
? Body Folding, Coelom Formation and Lung Development
? Veterinary Clinical Applications/Cases

7. Development of the Peripheral Nervous System
? Spinal Cord and Motor/Sensory Innervation
? Somite Development

8. Comparative Placentation
? Extraembryonic Membranes: Amnion, Yolk Sac, Allantois, Chorion
? Placental Strategies: Choriovitelline, Chorioallantoic
? Species Variations
? Veterinary Clinical Applications/Cases


9. Development of the Limbs
? Limb Bud Formation
? Apical Ectodermal Ridge
? Development of the Appendicular Skeleton, Musculature, Vasculature and Innervation
? Differentiation of Distal Appendages: Digit Formation
? Veterinary Clinical Applications/Cases

10. Development of the Heart
? Primitive Heart Tube Formation
? Development of Heart Chambers and Valves
? Development of the Conduction System
? Veterinary Clinical Applications/Cases

11. Development of the Vascular System
? Formation of the Aortic Arches and the Arterial System
? Development of the Vitelline, Umbilical and Cardinal Venous System
? The Coronary Vasculature
? Circulatory changes at Parturition
? Veterinary Clinical Applications/Cases

12. Development of the Gastrointestinal System
? The Enteric Canal
? Stomach, Pancreas, Liver and Spleen
? Development of Peritoneum and Formation of Mesenteries
? Rotation and Fixation of the Midgut
? Differentiation of the Large Bowel
? Septation and Differentiation of the Cloaca
? Veterinary Clinical Applications/Cases

13. Development of the Urogenital System
? Pronephros Differentiation
? Development of the Mesonephric and Metanephric Kidneys
? Urogenital Ridge and Gonad Development
? Development of the Urogentital Duct Systems and External Genitalia
? Veterinary Clinical Applications/Cases

14. Development of the Head and Neck
? Development of the Skull and Vertebrae
? Differentiation of Pharyngeal Arch Structures and Pouch Derivatives
? Development of the Palate, Tongue and Pituitary
? Development of Facial Structures
? Veterinary Clinical Applications/Cases

15. Development of the Brain and Cranial Nerves
? Regional Differentiation and Functional Relationships
? Development of the Ventricular System
? Development and Function of the Cranial Nerves
? Veterinary Clinical Applications/Cases

16. Development of the Eyes and Ears
? Formation of the Ear
? Formation of the Eye
? Veterinary Clinical Applications/Cases

17. Development of the Integumentary System
? Differentiation of the Epidermis and Dermis
? Development of Epidermal Glands including Mammary Glands
? Formation of Hair and Teeth
? Veterinary Clinical Applications/Cases


18. Teratology
? Genetic & Congenital
? Critical Periods & Teratogenic Agents
? Maternal/Fetal Interactions
? Specie-Specific Manifestations

19. Assisted Reproductive Technologies
? Artificial Insemination and Embryo/Gamete Transfer (ET,GIFT, ZIFT, etc)
? Cryopreservation of Germplasm
? In Vitro Maturation, Fertilization and Embryo Production
? Embryo Micromanipulation: Splitting, ICSI, Transgenics, Embryonic Stem Cells/ Chimeras, Cloning

20. Applied Embryology: Veterinary and Societal Issues
? The Role of the Veterinarian
? Contemporary Issues

Additional Reading - References