Endocrinology of the menopause. Menopause-related symptoms and their treatment. Menopause, hormone replacement therapy and quality of life. Interpreting the plasma lipoprotein profile of the postmenopausal woman. The effects of ageing and hormone replacement therapy on glucose metabolism. Hormone replacement therapy and coagulation. Current views on hormone replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease. The biology and consequences of osteoporosis. The effect of hormone replacement therapy on bone. The prevention of osteoporotic fractures. The action of oestrogens in the brain. Oestrogens, cognitive functions and dementia. Female sex hormones, sleep and mood. Sexuality and menopause. Oestrogens and the lower urogenital tract. Hormone replacement therapy: when to start, when to stop? The administration and dosage of oestrogens. How to select progestin for hormone replacement therapy. Androgen replacement therapies for postmenopausal women. Alternatives to oestrogen. Alternative management of the female menopause. Endometrial effects and bleeding patterns. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy and the breast. The use of hormone replacement therapy in Europe and around the world. Economic aspects in the management of the menopause. Test yourself: questions. Test yourself: answers. Index.