Pocketbook of Radiographic Positioning, 3rd Edition

Pocketbook of Radiographic Positioning

3rd Edition

By Ruth Sutherland, DCR(R), Formerly, Lecturer, Faculty of Health and Social Care, School of Health Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK; and Calum Thomson, BSc, DCR(R), Superintendent Radiographer Orthopaedics, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK

Radiographic Projections: Upper Extremity: Fingers - PA (Dorsipalmar), Lateral. Thumb ? AP, Lateral, AP Alternative position (trauma). Hand ? PA (Dorsipalmar), PA oblique, Lateral, AP oblique (Ball Catcher?s). Wrist ? PA, PA oblique, Lateral. Scaphoid ? PA, PA oblique, Lateral, AP oblique, Possible scaphoid fracture, (Alternative banana projection). Forearm ? AP, Lateral. Elbow ? AP, Lateral, Modified projections. Radial head ? Alternative projection. Humerus ? AP, Lateral. Shoulder Girdle: Shoulder joint ? AP, AP oblique, Axial inferosuperior, Axial superoinferior, Supplementary ?Y? projection ? dislocated shoulder. Scapula ? AP, Lateral. Acromioclavicular joints ? AP, AP weight-bearing. Clavicle ? PA, Inferosuperior. Thoracic Cage: Upper ribs ? Right or left posterior obliques, Lower ribs - AP. Sternum ? Lateral, Anterior Oblique (RAO). Respiratory system: Lung fields ? PA, Lateral, Apices, Lordotic. Trachea-thoracic inlet ? AP, Lateral. Abdominal contents: Abdomen ? AP supine, AP erect, Left lateral decubitus. Urinary tract ? AP supine ? kidney, ureter and bladder (KUB), Kidney/ureter posterior obliques, AP bladder, Bladder posterior obliques .Pelvis, Hip Joint and Upper Third of Femur: Pelvis - AP. Both hips ? AP, Lateral (Frog). Single hip ? Lateral ? neck of femur, AP ? single hip, Lateral ? non-trauma. Lower Extremity: Toes ? Dorsiplantar (AP), Dorsiplantar (AP oblique), Lateral. Foot ? Dorsiplantar (AP), Dorsiplantar (AP oblique), Lateral. Ankle joint ? AP, Lateral. Calcaneum ? Lateral, Axial. Tibia and Fibula ? AP, Lateral. Knee joint ? AP, Lateral, Intercondylar notch, Patella ? inferosuperior (skyline projection). Femur ? AP, Lateral, Lateral ? horizontal beam. Vertebral Column: Cervical spine ? AP C1-C3, AP C3-C7, Lateral, Anterior obliques. Cervicothoracic ? Swimmer?s. Thoracic spine ? AP, Lateral. Lumbar spine ? AP, Lateral, Lumbosacral Junction (L5-S1), AP obliques. Sacrum ? AP, Lateral. Coccyx ? AP, Lateral. The Skull: Skull baselines. Isocentric Technique ? Basic equipment positions. Skull ? Occipitofrontal, Pineal, Half-axial, Lateral. Facial bones ? Occipitomental 15, Occipitomental 30, Lateral. Sinuses ? Occipitomental, Lateral, Occipitofrontal, Modified Occipitofrontal. Appendix: Further projections, Exposure factors, Glossary of Common Medical terms, Normal Biochemical Values, Common Abbreviations. Bibliography