100 Challenges in Echocardiography

100 Challenges in Echocardiography

By Christophe Klimczak, MD, PhD, Cardiologist and Hospital Practitioner, CHU Paris-VI (Pierre & Marie Curie), Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; and Hôpital Charles-Foix, Ivry-sur-Seine, France; and Petros Nihoyannopoulos, MD, FRCP, FACC, FESC, Consultant Cardiologist, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK; President, European Association of Echocardiography of the ESC


SECTION 1 ? Technical Pitfalls
The physical limitations of echocardiography
Ultrasound artefacts
Patient hypoechogenicity
Problems due to adjustments of the machine settings
Other technical pitfalls

SECTION 2 ? Diagnostic Pitfalls
Cardiac valves
Cardiac walls
Cardiac chambers
Systolic and diastolic function of the ventricles
Pulmonary arterial pressures
Thoracic aorta