Atlas of Pain Injection Techniques

Atlas of Pain Injection Techniques

By Therese C. O'Connor, MB, FFARCSI, Consultant Anaesthetist, Pain Specialist, St. Joseph's Private Hospital, Longhanelton, Calry, Sligo, Ireland; and Stephen E. Abram, MD, Professor of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI


1. Mechanisms of pain transmission?an overview of anatomy and physiology
2. Joint injections

2.1 Lumbar facet joint injection
2.1 Cervical facet joint injection
2.3 Sacro-iliac joint injection
3. Epidural blockade
3.1 Lumbar epidural block
3.2 Thoracic epidural block
3.3 Cervical epidural block
3.4 Caudal epidural block
3.5 Long-term epidural catheter insertion
4. Somatic nerve blockade
4.1 Intercostal nerve block
4.2 Interpleural block
4.3 Lumbar nerve root block
4.4 Thoracic nerve root block
4.5 Sacral nerve root block
4.6 Occipital nerve block
4.7 Trigeminal ganglion (Gasserian) block
5. Autonomic blockade
5.1 Stellate ganglion block?C6 (classic) approach
5.2 Stellate ganglion block?C7 approach
5.3 Lumbar sympathetic block
5.4 Celiac plexus block?retrocrural approach
5.5 Celiac plexus block?anterocrural approach
5.6 Splanchnic nerve block
5.7 Hypogastric plexus block
5.8 Ganglion impar block
5.9 Intravenous regional sympathetic block?upper limb
5.10 Intravenous regional sympathetic block?lower limb
6. Muscle injection
6.1 Trigger-point injection?neck
6.2 Trigger-point injection?back
6.3 Gluteus medius injection
6.4 Piri formis injection
7. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
Appendix 1 Suggested local anesthetics
Appendix 2 Suggested corticosteroids
Appendix 3 Suggested neurolytic agents
Appendix 4 Recommended resuscitation drugs and equipment
Appendix 5 Dermatomes