Baynes and Dominiczak's Medical Biochemistry Flash Cards, with STUDENT CONSULT Online Access

Baynes and Dominiczak's Medical Biochemistry Flash Cards

with STUDENT CONSULT Online Access

By Marek H. Dominiczak, MB, PhD, MRCPath, Consultant Biochemist, Department of Pathological Biochemistry, Gartnavel General Hospital, Glasgow, UK


Metabolism

1 Overview

AA and proteins

2 Types of amino acids neutral, basic acidic

3 HH and ionization pK; HH and buffers

4 Protein structure- primary to quarternary

5 Techniques of protein separation

Carbohydrates and lipids

6 Classification of carbohydrates

7 Fatty acids

8 Lipids

Plasma

9 Blood- components. Complete blood count.

10 Plasma proteins

11 Immunoglobulins

12 The transport function of plasma

Oxygen

13 Heme, myoglobin and haemoglobin Oxygen- pressures

14 Allosterism, Bohr effect 2,3-DPG

Enzymes

15 Energy and Classification

16 Enzymes and disease

17 Enzyme kinetics. Enzyme inhibiton

18 Enzyme regulation

Hemostasis

19 Overview. Causes of excessive bleeding Platelets

20 Coagulation

21 Fibrinolysis

Membranes

22 Structure

23 Modes of transport

24 Primary active transporters Glucose transporters

25 Calcium transport and muscle contraction

26 Acid secretion in the stomach

Bioenergetics

27 The process of oxidation of fuels Reduced coenzymes and ATP

28 Oxidative phosphorylation

29 ATP synthase

30 Electron shuttles

31 Inhibitors and uncouplers

GI tract

32 GI tract and digestion

33 Digestion of carbohydrates

34 Digestion of lipids

35 Digestion of proteins

Micronutrients

36 Fat soluble vitamins

37 Water soluble vitamins

38 Vit B12

39 Trace elements

Glycolysis

40 Glycolysis- investment stage

41 Glycolysis- yield stage

42 Glycolysis and other pathways

43 Pentose phosphate pathway- the redox stage. Pentose phosphate pathway-- interconversion stage

Glycogen

44 Nutrients and pathways

45 Glycogen structure & synthesis

46 Glycogen degradation glycogenolysis

47 The action of glucagon

48 Glycogen storage diseases

49 Gluconeogenesis

50 Regulation of gluconeogenesis

TCA cycle

51 Acetyl-CoA

52 Amphibolic nature of the cycle

53 Pyruvate

54 Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)

55 TCA and its enzymes

56 Regulation of PDH

57 Energetics

58 TCA cycle regulation and anaplerotic reactions

Lipid oxidation

59 Fatty acid activation and transport

60 Beta-oxidation

61 Ketogenesis

62 Regulation of lipid metabolism by glucagon and epinephrine

Biosynthesis of fatty acids

63 The Ac-CoA carboxylase

64 Fatty acid synthetase -structure

65 Fatty acid synthetase reaction

66 Malate shuttle - transport of 2C units from the mitochondria

67 Elongation and desaturation

68 Triglycerides and essential fatty acids

Cholesterol

69 Cholesterol synthesis and related pathways

70 Biosynthesis of mevalonic acid

71 Biosynthesis of farnesyl-P, squalene

72 Biosynthesis of cholesterol

73 Regulation of cellular cholesterol concentration

74 Bile acids: structure and metabolism

75 Biosynthesis of steroid hormones

76 Classes of steroids

Lipoproteins

77 Lipoprotein particle and its components

78 Apoproteins and their receptors

79 Fuel transport and overflow pathway

80 Reverse cholesterol transport

81 Dyslipidemias

82 Atherogenesis

Biosynthesis and degradation of amino acids

83 Amino acids and related substances

84 Urea cycle- sources of urea atoms

85 Transamination and oxidative deamination

86 Amino acids and central metabolic pathways

87 Branched chain amino acids

88 Aromatic amino acids

89 Essential and nonessential AA

Muscle

90 Muscle proteins and sarcomere

91 Muscle contraction

92 Biochemistry of muscular exercise. Creatine phosphate

93 Troponin and myocardial infarction

Glucose and fuel metabolism

94 Anabolism and catabolism

95 Glucose homeostasis

96 Insulin action

97 Glucagon-insulin antagonism

98 The role of enzyme phosphorylation

99 Hypoglycemia

100 Fed state

101 Fasting state

102 Starvation

103 Metabolism during stress and injury

104 Definition and classification of diabetes

105 Metabolism in diabetes

106 Diabetic ketoacidosis and long term complications

107 Diabetes: diagnostic criteria and laboratory diagnosis

Nutrition and energy balance

108 Regulation of food intake

109 Caloric content and nutritional requlation Classes of nutrients

110 Iron metabolism

111 Malnutrition

112 Obesity

Water and electrolytes

113 Body compartments Electrolyte content of fluids

114 Water balance Osmolality

115 Assessment of renal function

116 Potassium

117 Renin-angiotensin system Links between water and sodium metabolism

118 Vasopressin and aquaporins

Acid base

119 Acid base balance

120 Acid-base disorders

121 The gas exchange Transport of carbon dioxide

122 Excretion of bicarbonate

Calcium and bone

123 Bone resorption and bone formation Disorders of calcium metabolism

124 Calcium homeostasis

125 Vitamin D

Complex glycoproteins

126 Glycoproteins

127 Glucose mannose and galactose

128 Metabolism of fructose

129 Sialic acid. Role of complex carbohydrates

Complex lipids

130 Phospholipids

131 Sphingolipids

132 Cerebrosides and gangliosides

Extracellular matrix

133 Collagens Other proteins of the extracellular matrix

Liver

134 Functions of the liver

135 Heme synthesis

136 Bilirubun metabolism

137 Drug metabolism Alcohol

138 Jaundice

Nucleotides

139 Purine synthesis

140 Conversion of nucleotides

141 Purine salvage pathways

142 Degradation of purines

143 Pyrimidine synth

144 Synthesis of nucleotides

DNA

145 Structure Types of DNA

146 Replication

147 Mutations and repair

RNA

148 Classes of RNA

149 Transcription

150 RNA processing

Protein synthesis

151 Genetic code

152 Activation of amino acids and interaction with tRNA

153 Initiation

154 Peptide bond formation

155 Termination

156 Ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum

157 Proteasome and ubiquitin

Gene expression

158 Control of gene expression

159 Components of the control system

160 Steroid receptors

161 Other regulatory mechanisms

Recombinant DNA technology

162 Molecular hybridization

163 Microarrays

164 Restriction enzymes

165 Southern blotting

166 DNA cloning- PCR

167 Analysis of DNA

168 DNA sequencing

Genomics and proteomics

169 Genomics-techniques

170 Proteomics

171 Metabolomics and biomarkers

Oxygen and life

172 Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress

173 Formation of ROS Lipid peroxidation

174 Antioxidants

Immune response

175 Innate immune response

176 Adaptive immune response

177 Elimination of antigens

178 Humoral response

179 Autoimmunity hypersensitivity immunodeficiency

Endocrinology

180 Hormones and Hormone-binding proteins

181 Hormone measurements and function tests

182 Endocrine axes and disorders

183 Thyroid hormones

184 Endocrinology of the adrenal cortex - cortisol

185 Endocrinology of the adrenal cortex - androgens and estrogens

186 Gonadal hormones and the menstrual cycle

187 The growth hormone and prolactin

Receptors and Signal Transduction

188 Hormone receptors

189 G-protein signaling

190 C-AMP

191 Protein kinase A system

192 Phosphoinositol and DAG and PKC

193 Arachidonic acid, phospholipases and eicosanoids

Neurochemistry

194 Neurones

195 Mechanism of vision

Neurotransmitters

196 Nature of neurotransmitters

197 Ionotropic and metabotropic receptors

198 Synthesis of neurotransmitters

199 Catabolism of catecholamines

200 Nitric oxide

Growth, differentiation and cancer

201 Cell cycle

202 Growth factors and their receptors

203 Apoptosis

204 Cancer, oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes

Aging

205 Theories of aging

206 Biochemistry of aging