Learning Radiology, Recognizing the Basics (With STUDENT CONSULT Online Access), 2nd Edition

Learning Radiology

2nd Edition Recognizing the Basics (With STUDENT CONSULT Online Access)

By William Herring, MD, Vice-Chairman, and Program Director, Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA


1. Recognizing Anything: An Introduction to Imaging Modalities

Let There be Light . . . and Dark, and Shades of Gray

Conventional Radiography (Plain Films)

Computed Tomography (CT or CAT Scans)

Ultrasound (US)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Terminology

The Best System is the One That Works

Conventions Used in This Book

2. Recognizing Normal Chest Anatomy and a Technically Adequate Chest Radiograph

The Normal Frontal Chest Radiograph

The Lateral Chest Radiograph

Five Key Areas on the Lateral Chest X-Ray

Evaluating the Chest Radiograph for Technical Adequacy

3. Recognizing Airspace Versus Interstitial Lung Disease

Classifying Parenchymal Lung Disease

Characteristics of Airspace Disease

Some Causes of Airspace Disease

Characteristics of Interstitial Lung Disease

Some Causes of Interstitial Lung Disease

4. Recognizing the Causes of an Opacified Hemithorax

Atelectasis of the Entire Lung

Massive Pleural Effusion

Pneumonia of an Entire Lung

Post-Pneumonectomy

5. Recognizing Atelectasis

What is Atelectasis

Signs of Atelectasis

Types of Atelectasis

Patterns of Collapse in Lobar Atelectasis

How Atelectasis Resolves

6. Recognizing a Pleural Effusion

Normal Anatomy and Physiology of the Pleural Space

Causes of Pleural Effusions

Types of Pleural Effusions

Side Specificity of Pleural Effusions

Recognizing the Different Appearances of Pleural Effusions

7. Recognizing Pneumonia

General Considerations

General Characteristics of Pneumonia

Patterns of Pneumonia

Aspiration

Localizing Pneumonia

How Pneumonia Resolves

8. Recognizing Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, Pneumopericardium, and Subcutaneous Emphysema

Recognizing a Pneumothorax

Recognizing the Pitfalls in Overdiagnosing a Pneumothorax

Types of Pneumothoraces

Causes of a Pneumothorax

Other Ways to Diagnose a Pneumothorax

Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema

Recognizing Pneumomediastinum

Recognizing Pneumopericardium

Recognizing Subcutaneous Emphysema

9. Recognizing Adult Heart Disease

Recognizing an Enlarged Cardiac Silhouette

Pericardial Effusion

Extracardiac Causes of Apparent Cardiac Enlargement

Effect of Projection of Perception of Heart Size

Identifying Cardiac Enlargement on an Anteroposterior Chest Radiograph

Recognizing Cardiomegaly on the Lateral Chest Radiograph

Recognizing Cardiomegaly in Infants

Normal Cardiac Contours

Normal Pulmonary Vasculature

General Principles of Cardiac Imaging

Recognizing Common Cardiac Diseases

10. Recognizing the Correct Placement of Lines and Tubes: Critical Care Radiology

Endotracheal and Tracheostomy Tubes

Intravascular Catheters

Pulmonary Drainage Tubes (Chest Tubes, Thoracotomy Tubes)

Cardiac Devices

Gastrointestinal Tubes and Lines

11. Computed Tomography: Understanding the Principles and Recognizing Normal Anatomy

Introduction to CT

Intravenous Contrast in CT Scanning

Oral Contrast in CT Scanning

Normal Chest CT Anatomy

Cardiac CT

Abdominal CT

12. Recognizing Diseases of the Chest

Mediastinal Masses

Anterior Mediastinum

Middle Mediastinum

Posterior Mediastinum

Solitary Nodule/Mass in the Lung

Bronchogenic Carcinoma

Metastatic Neoplasms in the Lung

Pulmonary Thromboembolic Disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Blebs and Bullae,Cysts and Cavities

Bronchiectasis

13. Recognizing the Normal Abdomen: Conventional Radiographs

What to Look For

Normal Bowel Gas Pattern

Normal Fluid Levels

Differentiating Large from Small Bowel

Acute Abdominal Series: The Views and What They Show

Calcifications

Organomegaly

14. Recognizing Bowel Obstruction and Ileus

Abnormal Gas Patterns

Laws of the Gut

Functional Ileus: Localized Sentinal Loops

Functional Ileus: Generalized Adynamic Ileus

Mechanical Obstruction: Small Bowel Obstruction

Mechanical Obstruction: Large Bowel Obstruction

Volvulus of the Colon

Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie?s Syndrome)

15. Recognizing Extraluminal Air in the Abdomen

Signs of Free Intraperitoneal Air

Causes of Free Air

Signs of Extraperitoneal Air (Retroperitoneal Air)

Causes of Extraperitoneal Air

Signs of Air in the Bowel Wall

Causes and Significance of Air in the Bowel Wall

Signs of Air in the Biliary System

Causes of Air in the Biliary System

16. Recognizing Abnormal Calcifications and Their Causes

Patterns of Calcification

Rim-like Calcification

Linear or Track-like Calcification

Lamellar or Laminar Calcification

Cloudlike, Amorphous, or Popcorn Calcification

Location of Calcification

17. Recognizing the Imaging Findings of Trauma

Chest Trauma

Aortic Trauma

Abdominial Trauma

Pelvic Trauma

18. Recognizing Gastrointestinal, Hepatic, and Urinary Tract Abnormalities

Barium Studies of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Esophagus

Stomach and Duodenum

Small and Large Bowel

Pancreas

Hepatobiliary Abnormalities

Urinary Tract

Pelvis

Urinary Bladder

Terminology

Common Principles for All Gastrointestinal Barium Studies

19. Ultrasound: Understanding the Principles and Recognizing Normal and Abnormal Findings

How it Works

Doppler Ultrasonography

Adverse Effects and Safety Issues

Medical Uses of Ultrasonography

Biliary System

Urinary Tract

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

Female Pelvic Organs

Appendicitis

Pregnancy

Vascular Ultrasound

Deep Venous Thrombosis

20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Understanding the Principles and Recognizing the Basics

How MRI Works

Hardware that Makes Up an MRI Scanner

What Happens Once Scanning Begins

Pulse Sequences

Identifying a T1- or T2-Weighted Image

MRI Contrast: General Considerations

MRI Safety Issues

Diagnostic Applications of MRI

21. Recognizing Abnormalities of Bone Density

Normal Bone Anatomy

The Effect of Bone Physiology on Bone Anatomy

Recognizing a Generalized Increase in Bone Density

Recognizing a Focal Increase in Bone Density

Recognizing a Generalized Decrease in Bone Density

Recognizing a Focal Decrease in Bone Density

Pathologic Fractures

22. Recognizing Fractures and Dislocations

Recognizing an Acute Fracture

Recognizing Dislocations and Subluxtions

Describing Fractures

Avulsion Fractures

Salter-Harris Fractures: Epiphyseal Plate Fractures in Children

Child Abuse

Stress Fractures

Common Fracture Eponyms

Some Easily Missed Fractures or Dislocations

Fracture Healing

23. Recognizing Joint Disease: An Approach to Arthritis

Anatomy of a Joint

Classification of Arthritis

Hypertrophic Arthritis

Erosive Arthritis

Infectious Arthritis

24. Recognizing Some Common Causes of Back and Neck Pain

Conventional Radiology, MRI, and CT

The Normal Spine

Back Pain

Herniated Disks

Degenerative Disk Disease

Osteoarthritis of the Facet Joints

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

Compression Fractures of the Spine

Spondylolisthesis and Spondylolysis

Spinal Stenosis

Malignancy Involving the Spine

MRI in Metastatic Spine Disease

Infections of the Spine: Diskitis and Osteomyelitis

Spinal Trauma

25. Recognizing Some Common Causes of Intracranial Pathology

Normal Anatomy

MRI and the Brain

Head Trauma

Intracranial Hemorrhage

Diffuse Axonal Injury

Increased Intracranial Pressure

Stroke

Ruptured Aneurysms

Hydrocephalus

Cerebral Atrophy

Brain Tumors

Multiple Sclerosis

Terminology

Appendix: Recognizing What to Order

Bibliography