Pain Assessment and Pharmacologic Management

Pain Assessment and Pharmacologic Management

By Chris Pasero, MS, RN-BC, FAAN, Pain Management Educator and Clinical Consultant and Margo McCaffery, MS, RN-BC, FAAN, Consultant in the Nursing Care of Patients with Pain


Section I: Underlying Mechanisms of Pain
Section II: Assessment
Introduction
1. Underlying Complexities of Pain Assessment
2. Misconceptions That Hamper Assessment and Treatment of Patients Who Report Pain
3. Assessment Tools for Patients
4. Other Challenges in Pain Assessment
Conclusion
References
Section III: Nonopioid Analgesics
Introduction
5. Indications for Administration of Acetaminophen or NSAIDs
6. Adverse Effects of Acetaminophen and NSAIDs
7. Individualizing the Selection of Nonopioid Analgesics
8. Perioperative Nonopioid Use
9. Nonprescription Nonopioids
10. Acute Overdose
Conclusion
References
Section IV: Opioid Analgesics
Introduction
11. Physiology and Pharmacology of Opioid Analgesics
12. Key Concepts in Analgesic Therapy
13. Guidelines for Opioid Drug Selection
14. Guidelines for Selection of Routes of Opioid Administration
15. Intraspinal Analgesia (Epidural and Intrathecal)
16. Initiating Opioid Therapy
17. IV Patient-Controlled Analgesia
18. Switching to another Opioid or Route of Administration
19. Management of Opioid-Induced Adverse Effects
20. Unwarranted Withholding of Opioids
Conclusion
References
Section 5: Adjuvant Analgesics
Introduction
21. General Considerations in the Use of Adjuvant Analgesics
22. Multipurpose Adjuvant Analgesics
23. Adjuvant Analgesics for Persistent (Chronic) Neuropathic Pain
24. Topical Analgesics for Persistent (Chronic) Pain
25. Adjuvant Analgesics for Musculoskeletal Pain
26. Adjuvant Analgesics for Postoperative and Other Acute Pain
27. Adjuvant Agends for Goal-Directed Sedation in the Critically Ill and Procedural Sedation
28. Local Anesthetics for Procedural Pain
29. Adjuvant Analgesics for Persistent (Chronic) Bone Pain
30. Adjuvant Analgesics for Malignant Bowel Obstruction
31. Adjuvants Less Often Used
Conclusion
References
Appendix A: Pain Resources on the Internet
Appendix B: Opioid Agreements
Appendix C: Use of Electronic Medical Records in Pain Management
Appendix D: Terminology