Anesthesia and Analgesia for Veterinary Technicians, 4th Edition

Anesthesia and Analgesia for Veterinary Technicians

4th Edition

By John Thomas, DVM, Assistant Professor, Veterinary Technology, Cuyahoga Community College, Cleveland, OH and Phillip Lerche, BVSc, PhD, Dipl ACVA, Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH


  1. Introduction to Anesthesia

    History of anesthesia

    The Veterinary Technician?s Role in the Practice of Anesthesia

  2. Patient Preparation
  3. Communication-A Key to Success

    The Minimum Patient Database

    Patient History

    Physical Examination and Physical Assessment

    Preanesthetic Diagnostic Workup

    Determination of the Physical Status Classification

    Selection of the Anesthetic Protocol

    Preinduction Patient Care

    Withholding Food before Anesthesia

    Patient Stabilization

    Intravenous Catheterization

    Reasons for Intravenous Catheterization

    Choosing and Placing an Intravenous Catheter

    Fluid administration

    Composition of Body Fluids

    Fluid Homeostasis

    Fluid Needs

    Classification of IV Fluids

    IV Fluid Selection and Administration Rates

    Adverse Effects of Fluid Administration

    Calculating Fluid Administration Rates

    Other Preanesthetic Care

  4. Anesthetic Agents and Adjuncts
  5. Introduction to Anesthetic Agents and Adjuncts

    Agonists, Partial Agonists, Mixed Agonist-Antagonists, and Antagonists

    Analgesic Effects of Anesthetics and Adjuncts

    Using drugs in combination

    Regulatory Considerations for Controlled Substances

    Preanesthetic Medications

    Reasons for the use of preanesthetic medications

    Anticholinergics

    Tranquilizers and Sedatives

    Opioids

    Neuroleptanalgesia

    Opioid Antagonists

    Injectable Anesthetics

    Barbiturates

    Propofol

    Dissociative anesthetics

    Etomidate

    Guaifenesin.

    Inhalation Anesthetics

    Classes of Inhalation Agents

    CNS and Respiratory Stimulants

    Doxapram

  6. Anesthetic Equipment
  7. Endotracheal Tubes and Associated Equipment

    Endotracheal tube parts

    Laryngoscopes

    Masks

    Anesthetic Chambers

    Anesthetic Machines

    Components of the Anesthetic Machine

    Rebreathing Systems

    Non-rebreathing Systems

    Operation of the Anesthetic Machine

    Care and Maintenance of Anesthetic Equipment

  8. Anesthetic Monitoring
  9. Introduction to Monitoring

    Stages and Planes of Anesthesia

    Overview of Anesthetic Stages and Planes

    Finding the Optimum Depth

    Determining whether or not the Patient is Safe

    Indicators of Circulation

    Heart rate

    Heart rhythm

    Capillary refill time

    Blood Pressure

    Pulse strength

    Indicators of Oxygenation

    Mucous membrane color

    Physiology of Oxygen transport

    Pulse Oximeter

    Blood Gas Analysis

    Indicators of Ventilation

    Respiratory rate

    Tidal volume

    Respiratory Character

    Apnea monitor

    Capnograph (End-tidal CO2 monitor)

    Blood gas analysis

    Indicators of Body Temperature

    Assessment of Anesthetic Depth

    Reflexes and Other Indicators of Anesthetic Depth

    Judging Anesthetic Depth

    Recording Information during Anesthesia

  10. Special Techniques
  11. Local anesthesia

    Local anesthetic agents

    Characteristics of local anesthetics

    Mechanism of Action

    Route of Administration of Local Anesthetics

    Toxicity of Local Anesthetics

    Assisted and controlled ventilation

    Ventilation in the Awake Animal

    Ventilation in the Anesthetized Animal

    Types of Controlled Ventilation

    Risks of Controlled Ventilation

    Neuromuscular blocking agents

  12. Analgesia
  13. Physiology of pain

    Consequences of untreated pain

    Signs of pain in animals

    Pain assessment tools

    Assessing response to therapy

    Perioperative pain management

    Pharmacologic analgesic therapy

    Opioid Agents

    Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs

    Other Analgesic Agents

    Multimodal Therapy

    Home Analgesia

    Nursing care

    Non-pharmacologic therapies

  14. Canine and Feline Anesthesia
  15. Patient Preparation

    Selecting a Protocol

    Summary of a General Anesthetic Procedure

    Anesthetic induction with an IM agent or combination

    Anesthetic induction with an IV injection of an ultra-short acting agent to effect

    Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) by IV boluses of an ultra-short acting agent

    Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) by constant rate infusion (CRI)

    Induction and maintenance with an inhalant agent

    IV induction and maintenance with an inhalant agent

    Equipment Preparation

    Premedication or Sedation

    Anesthetic Induction

    IV Induction

    Inhalation Agents

    Mask Induction

    Chamber Induction

    IM Induction

    Oral administration

    Endotracheal Intubation

    Equipment for Endotracheal Intubation

    Selecting an Endotracheal Tube

    Preparing the Tube

    Intubation Procedure

    Checking for Proper Placement

    Securing the Tube

    Cuff inflation

    Laryngospasm

    Complications of Intubation

    Maintenance of Anesthesia

    Maintenance with an Inhalant Agent

    Maintenance with repeat boluses of propofol or other ultrashort-acting agent

    Maintenance with a CRI

    Maintenance with injectable and inhalant agents

    Maintenance with an IM injection

    Patient Positioning, Comfort and Safety

    Anesthetic Recovery

    Anesthetist's Role in the Recovery Period

    Signs of Recovery

    Monitoring

    Oxygen Therapy

    Extubation

    The Postanesthetic Period

  16. Equine Anesthesia
  17. Patient Preparation

    Selecting a Protocol

    Summary of a General Anesthetic Procedure

    Equipment Preparation

    Premedication or Sedation

    Standing chemical restraint

    Anesthetic Induction

    IV Induction

    Inhalation Induction via Nasotracheal Tube

    Endotracheal Intubation

    Equipment for Endotracheal Intubation

    Selecting an Endotracheal Tube

    Preparing the Tube

    Intubation Procedure

    Complications of Intubation

    Maintenance of Anesthesia

    Maintenance with an Inhalant Agent

    Maintenance with intravenous agents, or TIVA

    Maintenance with injectable and inhalant agents

    Patient Positioning, Comfort and Safety

    Anesthetic Recovery

    Preparation for recovery

    Monitoring during recovery

    Signs of recovery

    Extubation

    Standing after regaining consciousness

    The Postanesthetic Period

  18. Food Animal Anesthesia
  19. Ruminants

    Patient preparation

    Selecting a Protocol

    Summary of a General Anesthetic Procedure

    Equipment Preparation

    Premedication or Sedation

    Anesthetic Induction

    Endotracheal Intubation

    Maintenance of Anesthesia

    Patient Positioning, Comfort and Safety

    Anesthetic Recovery

    The Post-anesthetic Period

    Swine

    Physical examination

    Sedation

    Anesthetic Induction

    Maintenance of Anesthesia

    Recovery

  20. Anesthesia of Rodents and Rabbits
  21. Patient evaluation

    Handling and restraint

    Physical examination

    Diagnostic tests

    Preanesthetic patient care

    Withholding food

    Correction of preexisting problems

    Preanesthetic agents

    Anticholinergics

    Phenothiazines

    Benzodiazepines

    Alpha2 adrenergic agonists

    Opioids

    General anesthesia

    Induction techniques and agents

    Intubation and maintenance of anesthesia

    Postoperative care

    Anesthetic emergencies

    Respiratory depression

    Circulatory failure

    Postoperative Analgesia

    Pain assessment

    Analgesic agents

    Chronic pain

    Administration of analgesics

  22. Anesthetic Problems and Emergencies
  23. Reasons That Anesthetic Problems and Emergencies Arise

    Human Errors That May Lead to Anesthetic Problems and Emergencies

    Equipment Issues That May Lead to Anesthetic Problems and Emergencies

    Adverse Effects of Anesthetic Agents

    Patient Factors that may lead to Anesthetic Problems and Emergencies

    Response to Anesthetic Problems and Emergencies

    Role of the Veterinary Technician in Emergency Care

    General Approach to Emergencies

    Emergency Situations That May Arise During Anesthesia

    Problems That May Arise in the Recovery Period

  24. Workplace Safety

Hazards of Waste Anesthetic Gas

Short-Term Effects

Long-Term Effects

Assessment of Risk

Reducing Exposure to Waste Anesthetic Gas

Anesthetic techniques and procedures

Monitoring Waste Gas Levels

Safe Handling of Compressed Gases

Fire Safety Precautions

Use and Storage of Compressed Gas Cylinders

Accidental Exposure to Injectable Agents

  Glossary