Ophthalmology, Expert Consult: Online and Print, 3rd Edition

Ophthalmology

3rd Edition Expert Consult: Online and Print

By Myron Yanoff, MD, Professor and Chair, Department of Ophthalmology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA; and Jay S. Duker, MD, Director, New England Eye Center, Professor and Chair of Ophthalmology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA


Part 1: Genetics Janey L. Wiggs - Section Editor

1.1 Fundamentals of Human Genetics Janey L. Wiggs
1.2 Molecular Genetics of Selected Ocular Disorders Janey L. Wiggs
1.3 Genetic Testing and Genetic Counseling Janey L. Wiggs

Part 2: Optics and Refraction David Miller - Section Editor

2.1 Visible light David Miller, Stephen K.Burns
2.2 Physical optics for clinicians Edmond H.Thall, Russell Miller, Humberto Salinas
2.3 Light Damage to the Eye David Miller, Clifford A. Scott
2.4 Principles of lasers Neal H. Atebara, Edmond H.Thall
2.5 Light Units David Miller, Jerome S. Sarmiento, Stephen K Burns
2.6 Optics of the normal eye David Miller, Paulo Schor, Peter Magnante
2.7 Epidemiology of refractive errors David Miller, Clifford A. Scott
2.8 Testing of Refraction Clifford A. Scott
2.9 Contact lenses Paul F. White, Clifford A. Scott
2.10 Ophthalmic Instrumentation David Miller, Edmond H. Thall, Neil H. Atebara
2.11 Perspectives on aberrations of the eye Edmund H. Thall, David Miller

Part 3: Refractive Surgery Dimitri T. Azar - Section Editor

3.1 Current concepts, classification, and history of refractive surgery "Tatsuya Mimura, Dimitri T. Azar
"
3.2 Preoperative evaluation for refractive surgery Joshua A. Young, Ernest W. Kornmehl
3.3 Radial and Astigmatic Keratotomy Kerry K. Assil, Joelle Hallak, Dimitri T. Azar
3.4 Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy Natalia Kramarevsky, David R. Hardten
3.5 LASIK Patricia Sierra Wilkinson, Elizabeth A. Davis, David R. Hardten
3.6 Laser Subepithelial Keratomileusis (LASEK) and Epi-LASIK Leonard Ang, Dimitri T. Azar
3.7 Wavefront-Guided (Customized) Excimer Laser Refractive Surgery Faisal M. Tobaigy, Dimitri T. Azar
3.8 Conductive Keratoplasty and Laser Thermal Keratoplasty for Correction of Hyperopia and Presbyopia Dimitri T. Azar, Kalliopi Stasi
3.9 Intrastromal corneal ring segments for low and high myopia Takashi Kojima, Jonathan D. Primack, Dimitri T. Azar
3.10 Phakic Intraocular Lenses Ramon C. Ghanem, Dimitri T. Azar

Part 4: Cornea and Ocular Surface Diseases Michael H. Goldstein - Section Editor

Section 1: Basic Principles

4.1 Corneal Anatomy, Physiology and Wound Healing Ayad A. Farjo, Mark L. McDermott, Kaz Soong
4.2 Corneal Topography and Wave Front Imaging Michael J. Taravella, Richard S. Davidson

Section 2: Congenital Abnormailities

4.3 Congenital Corneal Abnormailities Joel Sugar, Hormuz P. Wadia

Section 3: External Diseases

4.4 Blepharitis Jyotsom B. Ganatra, Michael H. Goldstein
4.5 HZV Ophthalmicus Huck A. Holz, Ladan Espandar, Majid Moshirfar

Section 4: Conjunctival Diseases

4.6 Conjunctivitis: infectious and non-infectious Jonathan B. Rubenstein, Vanee Virasch
4.7 Allergic Conjunctivitis Jonathan B. Rubenstein, Vanee Virasch
4.8 Tumors of Conjunctiva and Cornea James J. Augsburger, Zélia M. Corręa
4.9 Pterygium and Conjunctival Degenerations Qais A. Farjo, Alan Sugar
4.10 Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid/Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid Ahmed Al-Ghoul, Gene Kim, Deepinder K. Dhaliwal

Section 5: Scleral and Episcleral Diseases

4.11 Episcleritis and Scleritis Debra Goldstein, Howard H. Tessler

Section 6: Corneal Diseases

4.12 Bacterial Keratitis Stephen D. McLeod
4.13 Fungal Keratitis Stephen D. McLeod
4.14 Parasitic Keratitis Stephen D. McLeod
4.15 Herpes Simplex Keratitis Sonal Tuli
4.16 Peripheral ulcerative keratitis Sarkis Soukiasian
4.17 Noninfectious Keratitis Charles S. Bouchard
4.18 Keratoconus and other Ectasias Joel Sugar, Hormuz P. Wadia
4.19 Anterior Corneal Dystrophies Bryan Edgington, Michael H. Goldstein
4.20 Stromal Corneal Dystrophies Joel Sugar, Hormuz P. Wadia
4.21 Corneal Endothelium Steven T. Berger, Mark L. McDermott, Harvinder K.S. Atluri
4.22 Corneal Degenerations Qais Farjo, Alan Sugar
4.23 Dry Eye Elmer Yuchen Tu, Stephen D. Rheinstrom

Section 7: Misc.

4.24 Contact Lens-Related Complications Thomas L. Steinemann, William Ehlers, Jeanine Suchecki
4.25 Corneal and External Eye Manifestations of Systemic Disease Anna C. Newlin, Hormuz Wadia, Joel Sugar

Section 8: Trauma

4.26 Acid and Alkali Burns Steven Rhee, Michael H. Goldstein

Section 9: Surgery

4.27 Corneal Surgery Lisa Martén, Ming X. Wang, Carol L. Karp, Robert P. Selkin, Dimitri T. Azar
4.28 Excimer Laser Treatment of Corneal Pathology Lisa Martén, Ming X. Wang, Carol L. Karp, Robert P. Selkin, Dimitri T. Azar
4.29 Conjunctival Surgery Lisa Martén, Ming X. Wang, Carol L. Karp, Robert P. Selkin, Dimitri T. Azar
4.30 Endothelial Keratoplasty: Targeted treatment for corneal endothelial dysfunction Francis W. Price, Jr., Marianne O. Price
4.31 Surgical Ocular Surface Reconstruction Vahid Feiz, Ivan R. Schwab
4.32 Management of Corneal Thinning, Melting, and Perforation Nicoletta Fynn-Thompson, Michael H. Goldstein

Part 5: The Lens Emanuel S. Rosen - Section Editor

5.1 Basic science of the lens Eric Dai, Michael E. Boulton
5.2 Evolution of Intraocular Lens Implantation Liliana Werner, Andrea M. Izak, Robert T. Isaacs, Suresh K. Pandey, David J. Apple
5.3 Patient Work-up for Cataract Surgery Frank W. Howes
5.4 Indications for lens surgery/Indications for application of different lens surgery techniques Frank W. Howes
5.5 The pharmacotherapy of cataract surgery Steve A. Arshinoff, Yvonne A.V. Opalinski
5.6 Anesthesia for cataract surgery Donna L. Greenhalgh
5.7 Phacoemulsification David Allen
5.8 Refractive aspects of cataract surgery Emanuel S. Rosen
5.9 Small incision cataract surgery Mark Packer, I. Howard Fine, Richard S. Hoffman
5.10 Manual cataract extraction Frank Howes
5.11 Combined procedures David Allen
5.12 Cataract surgery in complicated eyes Gary S. Schwartz, Stephen S. Lane
5.13 Pediatric cataract surgery Elie Dahan
5.14 Complications of cataract surgery Thomas Kohnen, Li Wang, Neil J. Friedman, Douglas D. Koch
5.15 Outcomes of cataract surgery Mats Lundstrom
5.16 Secondary Cataract Liliana Werner
5.17 Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Causes, Morphology and Visual Effects Mark Wevill


Part 6: Retina and Vitreous Jay S. Duker - Section Editor

Section 1: Basic Science

6.1 Structure and function of the neural retina Hermann D. Schubert
6.2 Retinal pigment epithelium "Michael F. Marmor
"
6.3 Retinal and choroidal circulation Shiyoung Roh, John J. Weiter

Section 2: Basic Principles of Retinal Surgery

6.4 Laser Photocoagulation Michael Ip, Carmen A. Puliafito
6.5 Scleral Buckling Surgery George A. Williams
6.6 Vitrectomy Michael Engelbert, Stanley Chang

Section 3: Ancillary Tests

6.7 Contact B-Scan Ultrasonography Yale L. Fisher, James M. Klancnik, Jr., Hanna Rodriguez-Coleman, Antonio P. Ciardella, Nicole E. Gross
6.8 Fluorescein Angiography, Indocyanine Green Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography F. Ryan Prall, Jeffrey L. Olson, C.J. Barnett, Naresh Mandava
6.9 Electrophysiology Tina Scheufele Cleary, Elias Reichel

Section 4: Dystrophies
6.10 Retinitis pigmentosa and related disorders Paul A. Sieving 6.11 Macular dystrophies Steven N. Truong, Kimberly Dresner, David G. Telander, Lawrence S. Morse, Kent W. Small
6.12 Choroidal dystrophies Sandeep Grover, Gerald A. Fishman
6.13 Congenital stationary night blindness Kenneth G. Noble
6.14 Hereditary vitreoretinopathies Alan E. Kimura

Section 5: Vascular Disorders

6.15 Hyertensive retinopathy Adam Rogers
6.16 Retinal Arterial Obstruction Jay S. Duker
6.17 Venous obstructive disease of the retina Mike G. Morley, Jeffrey S. Heier
6.18 Retinopathy of prematurity Kimberly A. Drenser, Antonio Capone, Jr.
6.19 Diabetic retinopathy Brett J. Rosenblatt, William E. Benson
6.20 Ocular ischemic syndrome Matthew T.S. Tennant, Arunan Sivalingam, Gergory M. Fox, Gary C. Brown
6.21 Hemoglobinopathies Allen C. Ho
6.22 Coats? Disease and Retinal Telangiectasia Diana V. Do, Julia A. Haller
6.23 Radiation retinopathy and papillopathy Desmond B. Archer
6.24 Proliferative retinopathies Srilaxmi Bearelly, Jeevan R. Mathura, Jr., Lee M. Jampol
6.25 Retinal arterial macroaneurysms Janice E. Contreras, William F. Mieler, Robert A. Mittra, John S. Pollack, Julia Jiyamapa

Section 6: Macular Disorders

6.26 Choroidal neovascularization Richard F. Spaide
6.27 Age-related macular degeneration Philip J. Rosenfeld, Adam Martidis, Matthew T.S. Tennant
6.28 Degenerative myopia Brad J. Baker, Ronald C. Pruett
6.29 Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Anna S. Kitzmann, Jose S. Pulido, William J. Wirostko
6.30 Macular Hole Jay S. Duker
6.31 Epiretinal membrane T. Mark Johnson, Mark W. Johnson
6.32 Vitreomacular traction syndrome William E. Smiddy
6.33 Cystoid macular edema Arthur Fu, Alex Bui, Richard Roe, Irma Ahmed, Everett Ai
6.34 Coexistent optic nerve and macular abnormalities Gary C. Brown, Melissa M. Brown
6.35 Angioid streaks James F. Vander

Section 7: Retinal Detachment

6.36 Peripheral retinal lesions William S. Tasman
6.37 Retinal breaks Craig M. Greven
6.38 Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment Charles P. Wilkinson
6.39 Serous detachments of the neural retina Rajiv Anand, Patrick D. Williams
6.40 Choroidal hemorrhage Michael Kapusta, Pedro Lopez
6.41 Proliferative vitreoretinopathy G. William Aylward

Section 8: Trauma

6.42 Posterior Segment Ocular Trauma Patrick E. Rubsamen
6.43 Distant trauma with posterior segment effects Jason Hsu, Carl D. Regillo
6.44 Light toxicity and laser burns Caroline R. Baumal
6.45 Retinal Toxicity of Systemically Administered Drugs Richard Hamilton, David V. Weinberg

Section 9: Retinal Detachment/Vitreous

6.46 Vitreous anatomy and pathology J. Sebag

Part 7: Uveitis and Other Intraocular Inflammations Narsing A. Rao - Section Editor

Section 1: Basic Principles

7.1 Anatomy of the uvea Monica T. Evans
7.2 Mechanisms of uveitis Igal Gery, Chi-Chao Chan
7.3 General approach to the uveitis patient and treatment strategies David J. Forster

Section 2: Infectious Causes of Uveitis--Viral

7.4 Herpes and other viral infections P. Kumar Rao
7.5 Cytomegalovirus Retinitis (CMVR) in AIDS Ehud Zamir

Section 3: Infectious Causes of Uveitis--Bacterial

7.6 Syphilitic and other spirochetal uveitis Julie H. Tsai, Jennifer R. Chao, Narsing A. Rao
7.7 Tuberculosis, leprosy and brucellosis Amod Gupta, Vishali Gupta
7.8 Cat scratch and Whipple's disease Robert C. Wang
7.9 Endophthalmitis Russell W. Read

Section 4: Infectious Causes of Uveitis--Fungal

7.10 Histoplasmosis Ramana S. Moorthy
7.11 Fungal Endophthalmitis: Candidiasis, Aspergillosis and Coccidioidomycosis Shailaja Valluri, Ramana S. Moorthy

Section 5: Infectious Causes of Uveitis--Protozoal and Parasitic

7.12 Ocular toxoplasmosis Stacy Pineles, Sarah M. Rikkers, Ralph D. Levinson
7.13 Posterior parasitic uveitis Jyotirmay Biswas

Section 6: Uveitis Associated With Systemic Disease

7.14 Uveitis related to HLA-B27 and juvenile arthritis Carlos Pavesio, Nicholas Jones
7.15 Sarcoidosis Claude L. Cowan Jr.
7.16 Behçets disease Annabella A. Okada
7.17 Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease Narsing A. Rao, Hajime Inomata

Section 7: Traumatic Uveitis

7.18 Phacogenic uveitis David J. Forster
7.19 Sympathetic uveitis Narsing A. Rao, George E. Marak Jr.

Section 8: Uveitis of Unknown Causes

7.20 Idiopathic and other anterior uveitis syndromes Julie H. Tsai, Narsing A. Rao
7.21 Pars planitis and other intermediate uveitis Julie H. Tsai, Narsing A. Rao
7.22 Posterior uveitis of unknown cause Ramana S. Moorthy, Lee M. Jampol

Section 9: Masquerade Syndromes

7.23 Masquerade Syndromes: Neoplasms Russell W. Read

Part 8: Intraocular Tumors James J. Augsburger - Section Editor

Section 1: Malignant and Intraocular Tumors

8.1 Retinoblastoma James J. Augsburger, Norbert Bornfeld, Michael Giblin
8.2 Uveal Melanoma James J. Augsburger, Bertil E. Damato, Norbert Bornfeld
8.3 Metastatic Cancer to the Eye James J. Augsburger, Rudolf Guthoff
8.4 Lymphoma and Leukemia James J. Augsburger, William G. Tsiaras
8.5 Medulloepithelioma James J. Augsburger, Zelia M. Correa

Section 2: Benign Intraocular Tumors

8.6 Uveal Nevus James J. Augsburger, J. William Harbour, John R. Gonder
8.7 Choroidal Hemangiomas James J. Augsburger, Rajiv Anand, George E. Sanborn
8.8 Choroidal Osteoma James J. Augsburger, Rudolf Guthoff
8.9 Astrocytoma of Retina James J. Augsburger, Alan F. Cruess
8.10 Hemangiomas of Retina James J. Augsburger, Norbert Bornfeld, Zelia M. Correa
8.11 Combined Hamartoma of Retina James J. Augsburger, Sanford M. Meyers
8.12 Hypertrophy of Retinal Pigment Epithelium James J. Augsburger, James P. Bolling

Section 3: Phakomatoses

8.13 Phakomatoses James J. Augsburger, James P. Bolling

Part 9: Neuro-ophthalmology Alfredo A. Sadun - Section Editor

Section 1: Imaging in Neuro-Ophthalmology

9.1 Principles of imaging in neuro-ophthalmology Swaraj Bose

Section 2: The Afferent Visual System

9.2 Anatomy and physiology Alfredo A. Sadun
9.3 Differentiation of optic nerve from retinal macular disease Alfredo A. Sadun
9.4 Congenital optic disc anomalies Michael C. Brodsky
9.5 Papilledema and raised intracranial pressure Alfredo A. Sadun
9.6 Inflammatory optic neuropathies and neuroretinitis Jason R. Guercio, Laura J. Balcer
9.7 Ischemic Optic Neuropathies Anthony C. Arnold
9.8 Hereditary, nutritional, and toxic optic atrophies Alfredo A. Sadun, Sevgi Gurkan
9.9 Prechiasmal pathways - compression by optic nerve and sheath tumors Thomas C. Spoor
9.10 Traumatic optic neuropathies Thomas C. Spoor
9.11 Optic chiasm, parasellar region, and pituitary fossa Richard M. Rubin, Alfredo A. Sadun, Alfio Piva
9.12 Retrochiasmal pathways, higher cortical function, nonorganic visual loss Andrew W. Lawton

Section 3: The Efferent Visual System

9.13 Disorders of supranuclear control of ocular motility Patrick J.M. Lavin, Sean P. Donahue
9.14 Nuclear and fascicular disorders of eye movement Sean P. Donahue
9.15 Paresis of isolated and multiple cranial nerves and painful ophthalmoplegia Mark L. Moster
9.16 Disorders of the neuromuscular junction Deborah I. Friedman
9.17 Ocular myopathies Richard M. Rubin, Alfredo A. Sadun
9.18 Nystagmus, saccadic intrusions, and oscillations Peter A. Quiros, Robert D. Yee
9.19 The Pupils Randy H. Kardon
9.20 Presbyopia and loss of accommodation Sean P. Donahue

Section 4: The Brain

9.21 Headache and facial pain Joel M. Weinstein
9.22 Tumors, infections, inflammations, and neurodegenerations Hossein G. Saadati, Alfredo A. Sadun

Section 5: Neuro-Ophthalmologic Emergencies

9.23 Urgent Neuro-Ophthalmic Pathologies Peter A. Quiros
9.24 Trauma, drugs, and toxins Deborah I. Friedman, Luis J. Mejico
9.25 Vascular disorders Thomas R. Hedges, Jr., Peter A. Quiros

Part 10: Glaucoma Joel S. Schuman - Section Editor

Section 1: Epidemiology and Mechanisms of Glaucoma

10.1 Epidemiology of glaucoma Pradeep Ramulu, David S. Friedman
10.2 Screening for glaucoma Joshua D. Stein, Paul P. Lee
10.3 Mechanisms of glaucoma Martin Wax, Abe Clark, Mortimer M. Civan

Section 2: Evaluation and Diagnosis

10.4 Clinical examination of glaucoma Jerome C. Ramos-Esteban, L. Jay Katz, William Goldberg, Anna Goldberg
10.5 Visual Field Testing in Glaucoma Donald L. Budenz
10.6 Advanced Psychophysical tests for glaucoma Chris A. Johnson
10.7 Optic Nerve Analysis Gadi Wollstein, Joel S. Schuman
10.8 Optic nerve blood flow measurement Alon Harris, Ehud Rechtman
10.9 Ocular Hypertension Polly Henderson, Thad Labbe, Michael A. Kass

Section 3: Specific Types of Glaucoma

10.10 Primary open angle glaucoma J.C.H Tan, Paul L. Kaufman
10.11 Normal-Tension Glaucoma Roger A. Hitchings
10.12 Angle closure glaucoma Jovina L.S. See, Paul T.K. Chew
10.13 Pseudoexfoliation glaucoma Patrick J. Riedel, Thomas W. Samuelson
10.14 Pigmentary glaucoma M. Bruce Shields
10.15 Neovascular glaucoma Malik Y. Kahook
10.16 Ocular Inflammatory and Corticosteroid Induced Glaucoma Ivan Goldberg, Ridia Lim
10.17 Glaucoma Associated With Ocular Trauma David P. Tingey, Bradford J. Shingleton
10.18 Glaucoma and Raised Episcleral Venous Pressure E. Randy Craven
10.19 Aqueous misdirection syndrome Nishat P. Alvi, Louis B. Cantor
10.20 Glaucoma associated with abnormalities of cornea and iris, tumors, and retinal disease Elliott Kanner, James C. Tsai
10.21 Congenital Glaucoma James D. Brandt

Section 4: Therapy

10.22 When to treat glaucoma Rebecca S. Walker, Jody R. Piltz Seymour
10.23 Which therapy to use in glaucoma? Douglas J. Rhee, Clive S. Migdal
10.24 Current medical management of glaucoma Ronald L. Gross
10.25 Laser Trabeculoplasty and Laser Peripheral Iridectomy Karim F. Damji
10.26 Laser filtration procedures Martha Motuz Leen
10.27 Cyclodestructive procedures in glaucoma Robert J. Noecker
10.28 Goniotomy and trabeculectomy Sarwat Salim, David S. Walton
10.29 Non-penetrating glaucoma surgery Iqbal Ike K. Ahmed, Baseer U. Khan
10.30 Trabeculectomy Cynthia Mattox
10.31 Antifibrotic agents in glaucoma surgery Peng Tee Khaw, Jonathan Clarke
10.32 Drainage implants Jeffrey Freedman
10.33 Complications of glaucoma surgery and their management Leon W. Herndon
10.34 Genes associated with Human Glaucoma Janey L. Wiggs
10.35 Evidence based medicine in glaucoma Henry Jampel, Kimberly E. Brown

Part 11: Pediatric and Adult Strabismus Gary R. Diamond - Section Editor

Section 1: Basic Science

11.1 Anatomy and physiology of the extraocular muscles and surrounding tissues Brian N. Campolattaro, Frederick M. Wang

Section 2: Evaluation and Diagnosis

11.2 Evaluating vision in preverbal and preliterate infants and children Gary R. Diamond
11.3 Examination of ocular alignment and eye movements Gary R. Diamond
11.4 Sensory adaptations in strabismus Gary R. Diamond

Section 3: Ocular Manifestations

11.5 Sensory status in strabismus Gary R. Diamond
11.6 Esotropia Gary R. Diamond
11.7 Exotropia Gary R. Diamond
11.8 Oblique muscle dysfunctions Gary R. Diamond
11.9 Alphabet pattern strabismus Gary R. Diamond
11.10 Paralytic strabismus Steven E. Rubin
11.11 Other vertical strabismus forms Howard M. Eggers
11.12 Amblyopia Gary R. Diamond

Section 4: Treatment

11.13 Forms of nonsurgical strabismus management Gary R. Diamond
11.14 Techniques of strabismus surgery Robert W. Lingua, Gary R. Diamond

Part 12: Orbit and Oculoplastics Jonathan J. Dutton - Section Editor

Section 1: Orbital Anatomy and Imaging

12.1 Clinical anatomy of the eyelids Jonathan J. Dutton
12.2 Clinical anatomy of the orbit Jonathan J. Dutton
12.3 Orbital imaging techniques Jonathan J. Dutton

Section 2: Eyelids

12.4 Eyelid retraction Gene R. Howard
12.5 Blepharoptosis Philip L. Custer
12.6 Entropion James W. Gigantelli
12.7 Ectropion Fiona O. Robinson, J. Richard O. Collin
12.8 Essential blepharospasm Donald C. Faucett
12.9 Benign eyelid lesions Ann G. Neff, Keith D. Carter
12.10 Eyelid malignancies Gregory J. Vaughn, Richard K. Dortzbach, Gregg S. Gayre
12.11 Eyelid trauma and reconstruction techniques Jeffrey P. Green, George C. Charonis, Robert Alan Goldberg

Section 3: Orbit and Lacrimal Gland

12.12 Orbital diseases Jonathan J. Dutton
12.13 Orbital surgery Jonathan J. Dutton
12.14 Enucleation, evisceration, and exenteration Myron Tanenbaum
12.15 The Lacrimal drainage system Jeffrey J. Hurwitz

Section 4: Periorbital Aesthetic Procedures

12.16 Cosmetic blepharoplasty and browplasty Francois Codere, Nancy Tucker
12.17 Injectable skin fillers Gregg S. Gayre
12.18 Cosmetic Wrinkle Reduction with Botulinum Toxin William J. Lipham