Disaster Medicine

Disaster Medicine

Edited by Gregory R. Ciottone, MD, FACEP, Director, International Emergency Medicine Section, Harvard Medical School; Director, Division of Disaster Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA; Philip D. Anderson, MD; Erik Auf Der Heide; Robert G. Darling, MD; Irving Jacoby; Eric Noji and Selim Suner


Part I: Overview of Disaster Management

1. Introduction to Disaster Medicine, Gregory Ciottone

Section One: Introduction

2. Public Health and Disasters, Catherine Y. Lee and James Michael Riley
3. The Role of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in Disaster, Robert D. Furberg and David E. Marcozzi
4. Role of Emergency Medicine in Disaster Management, Andrew I. Bern
5. The Role of Hospitals in Disaster, Mary W. Chaffee and Neill S. Oster
6. Complex Emergencies, Frederick M. Burkle, Jr. and P. Gregg Greenough
7. Children and Disaster, Bruce M. Becker
8. Psychological Impact of Disaster, Tracy E. Wimbush and Christo C. Courban
9. Ethical Issues in the Provision of Emergency Care in Multiple Casualty Incidents and Disasters, Pinchas Halpern and Gregory L. Larkin
10. Liability Issues in Emergency Response, Abigail Williams

Section Two: Governmental Resources

11. Disaster Response in the United States, Jerry L. Mothershead
12. Local Disaster Response, Jerry L. Mothershead
13. Disaster Planning: State Programs and Response, Esther H. Chen, Bruce Y. Lee, and Jerry L. Mothershead
14. Selected Federal Disaster Response Agencies and Capabilities, Jerry L. Mothershead, Kevin Yeskey, and Peter Brewster
15. International Disaster Response, Dan Hanfling, Craig H. Llewellyn, and Frederick M. Burkle, Jr.
16. Disaster/Emergency Management Programs, Peter Brewster

Section Three: Pre-Event Topics

17. Community Hazard Vulnerability Assessment, James C. Chang
18. Health Care Facility Hazard and Vulnerability Analysis, James C. Chang, William Gluckman, and Eric S. Weinstein
19. Public Information Management, Sharon Dilling, William Gluckman, Marc S. Rosenthal, and Eric S. Weinstein
20. Informatics and Telecommunications in Disaster, Churton Budd
21. Disaster Mitigation, Robert M. Gougelet
22. Vaccines, Kent J. Stock
23. Occupational Medicine: An Asset in Time of Crisis, Tee L. Guidotti
24. Worker Health and Safety in Disaster Response, Clifford S. Mitchell, Brian J. Maguire, and Tee L. Guidotti
25. Disaster Preparedness, Mark E. Keim and Paul Giannone
26. Policy Issues in Disaster Preparedness and Response, Eric S. Weinstein
27. Mutual Aid, James Geiling and Kerry Fosher
28. Surge Capacity, Julie Ann P. Casani and Albert J. Romanosky

Section Four (Part One): Event Response Topics

29. Operations and Logistics, David Jaslow
30. The Incident Command System, Alexander Sutingco
31. Scene Safety in Disaster Response, Robert L. Freitas
32. Needs Assessment, Shan W. Liu
33. Disaster Communications, Khama D. Ennis
34. Media Relations, Daniel F. Noltkamper
35. Managing Volunteers and Donations, Andrew M. Milsten
36. Personal Protective Equipment, John L. Hick and Craig D. Thorne
37. Surveillance, P. Gregg Greenough and Frederick M. Burkle, Jr.
38. Management of Mass Fatalities, Nelson Tang and Chayan Dey
39. Disaster Management of Animals, James M. Burke

Section Four (Part Two): Medical Operations in Disasters

40. Urban Search and Rescue, Gregory Ciottone
41. Medical Care in Remote Areas, David E. Marcozzi and Thomas P. LeBosquet III
42. EMS Behind the Barricade, Louis N. Molino, Sr.
43. Triage, Andrew Reisner
44. Patient Tracking Systems in Disasters, Charles Stewart
45. Tactical EMS, Jeffrey C. Metzger and David E. Marcozzi
46. Infectious Disease in a Disaster Zone, Richard A. Tempel and David E. Marcozzi
47. Pharmaceuticals and Medical Equipment in Disasters, Nicki Pesik and Susan E. Gorman

Section Five: Post-Event Topics

48. Displaced Populations, John D. Cahill
49. Rehabilitation and Reconstruction, Elizabeth Temin
50. Disaster Education and Research, Kenneth E. Williams, Leo Kobayashi, and Marc J. Shapiro
51. Practical Applications of Disaster Epidemiology, P. Gregg Greenough and Frederick M. Burkle, Jr.
52. Measures of Effectiveness in Disaster Management, Frederick M. Burkle, Jr. and P. Gregg Greenough

Section Six: Topics Unique to Terrorist Events

53. Lessons Learned as a Result of Terrorist Attacks, Mark E. Keim
54. The Psychology of Terrorism, Robert A. Ciottone
55. Medical Intelligence, Mark E. Keim
56. Thinking Outside the Box: Health Service Support Considerations in the Era of Asymmetrical Threats, Pietro D. Marghella and Duane C. Caneva
57. Accidental Versus Intentional Event, Joanne Cono
58. MultiModality, Layered Attack, Nicholas Vincent Cagliuso

59. Operations Security, Site Security, and Incident Response, Paul M. Maniscalco, Paul D. Kim, Stephen F. Hood, Neil A. Commerce, and Jeffrey A. Todd
60. Integration of Law Enforcement and Military Resources with the Emergency Response to a Terrorist Incident, Eric Sergienko
61. Nuclear Disaster Management, George A. Alexander
62. Chemical Attack, Duane C. Caneva
63. Biologic Attack, Andrew W. Artenstein
64. Future Biologic and Chemical Weapons, James M. Madsen and Robert G. Darling
65. Improvised Explosive Devices, Edward B. Lucci
66. Directed-Energy Weapons, M. Kathleen Stewart and Charles Stewart
67. Emergency Department Design, Robert H. Woolard
68. Chemical, Biologic, and Nuclear Quarantine, Patricia A. Nolan
69. Chemical Decontamination, Barbara Vogt and John Sorensen
70. Radiation Decontamination, George A. Alexander


Part II: Management of Specific Event Types

Section Seven: Natural Disasters

71. Introduction to Natural Disasters, Debra D. Schnelle
72. Hurricanes, Cyclones, and Typhoons, Eric Sergienko
73. Earthquake, Bruce M. Becker
74. Tornado, Michael D. Jones and James Pfaff
75. Flood, Sylvia H. Kim
76. Tsunami, Prasanthi Ramanujam and Thea James
77. Heat Wave, Alison Sisitsky
78. Winter Storm, Alison Sisitsky
79. Volcanic Eruption, Gregory Jay
80. Famine, Laura Macnow and Hilarie Cranmer
81. Landslides, Mark E. Keim
82. Avalanche, Jason A. Tracy

Section Eight: Nuclear/Radiation Events

83. Introduction to Nuclear/Radiologic Disasters, Dale M. Molé
84. Ionizing Radiation Incident, Carrie Barton
85. Nuclear Detonation, William E. Dickerson
86. Radiation Accident-Isolated Exposure, Jeanette A. Linder and Lawrence S. Linder
87. Radiation Accident-Dispersed Exposure, Jeanette A. Linder and Lawrence Linder
88. Nuclear Power Plant Meltdown, William Porcaro

Section Nine: Chemical Events

89. Introduction to Chemical Disasters, David Marcozzi
90. Industrial Chemical Disasters, Mark E. Keim
91. Nerve-Agent Attack, David Davis
92. Vesicant-Agent Attack, Lara K. Kulchycki
93. Respiratory-Agent Attack (Toxic Inhalational Injury), Stephen J. Traub
94. Cyanide Attack, Mark E. Keim
95. Antimuscarinic-Agent (BZ) Attack, Fermin Barrueto, Jr., and Lewis S. Nelson
96. LSD, Other Indoles and Phenylethylamine, Fiona E. Gallahue
97. Opioid-Agent Attack, Rick G. Kulkarni
98. Riot Control?Agent Attack, Sam Shen
99. Cholinergic-Agent Attack (Nicotine, Epibatidine, and Anatoxin-A), Sage W. Wiener and Lewis S. Nelson
100. Anesthetic-Agent Attack, Kinjal N. Sethuraman and K. Sophia Dyer


Section Ten: Biologic Events

101. Introduction to Biologic Threats, Andrew S. Nugent and Eric W. Dickson

Section Ten (Part One): Bacterial Agents

102. Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) Attack, Christo C. Courban
103. Yersinia pestis (Plague) Attack, Jeremiah D. Schuur and Jonathan Harris Valente
104. Francisella tularensis (Tularemia) Attack, Irving Jacoby
105. Brucella species (Brucellosis) Attack, Teriggi J. Ciccone
106. Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever) Attack, Teriggi J. Ciccone
107. Rickettsia prowazekii (Typhus Fever) Attack, Vittorio J. Raho and Jonathan A. Edlow
108. Orientia tsutsugamushi (Scrub Typhus) Attack, Peter B. Smulowitz and Jonathan A. Edlow
109. Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever) Attack, Vittorio J. Raho and Jonathan A. Edlow
110. Vibrio cholerae (Cholera) Attack, Milana Boukhman
111. Shigella dysenteriae (Shigellosis) Attack, Suzanne M. Shepherd, Stephen O. Cunnion, and William H. Shoff
112. Salmonella Species (Salmonellosis) Attack, Sumeru Mehta and C. Crawford Mechem
113. Salmonella typhi (Typhoid Fever) Attack, Lawrence Proano
114. Burkholderia mallei (Glanders) Attack, Mark A. Graber
115. Burkholderia pseudomallei (Melioidosis) Attack, Sean Montgomery
116. Chlamydia psittaci (Psittacosis) Attack, Hans R. House
117. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Attack (Hemorrhagic E. Coli), Roy Karl Werner

Section Ten (Part Two): Viral Agents

118. Viral Encephalitides (Alphaviruses) Attack, Matthew Berkman and Kelly J. Corrigan
119. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Attack, Vittorio J. Raho
120. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Attack: Arenaviruses, Sandra S. Yoon
121. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Attack: Bunya Virus, Sean Michael Siler
122. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Attack: Filo Viruses, William Porcaro
123. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Attack: Flaviviruses, John D. Cahill and James McKinley
124. Chikungunya Virus Attack, Heather Long
125. Variola Major Virus (Smallpox) Attack, Robert G. Darling
126. Influenza Virus Attack, Anna I. Cheh
127. Monkeypox, John D. Malone
128. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Bonnie H. Hartstein and Curtis J. Hunter
129. Hendra and Nipah Virus Attack (Hendra Virus Disease and Nipah Virus Encephalitis), Kelly Corrigan
130. SARS CoV Attack (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), Suzanne M. Shepherd, Stephen O. Cunnion, and William H. Shoff

Section Ten (Part Three): Toxins

131. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Attack, Robert G. Darling
132. Clostridium botulinum Toxin Attack (Botulism), Gary M. Vilke
133. Clostridium perfringen Toxin (Epsilon Toxin) Attack, L.B. Burnett
134. Marine Toxin Attack, Wende R. Reenstra
135. T-2 Toxin Attack (Trichothecene Mycotoxins), Frederick Fung
136. Ricin Toxin from Ricinus communis Attack (Castor Beans), Angela C. Anderson
137. Aflatoxin Attack (Aspergillus Species), Frederick Fung

Section Ten (Part Four): Other Biologic Agents

138. Coccidioides immitis Attack (Coccidioidomycosis), James F. Martin and Jill A. Grant
139. Histoplasma capsulatum Attack (Histoplamosis), Carol L. Venable and Elizabeth Mitchell
140. Cryptosporidium parvum Attack (Cryptosporidiosis), Miriam John and Carol Sulis


Section Eleven: Events Resulting in Blast Injuries

141. Introduction to Explosions and Blasts, Michael I. Greenberg and Dziwe W. Ntaba
142. Explosions: Conventional, Robert Partridge
143. Explosions: Fireworks, Craig Sisson
144. Suicide Bomber, Jeffry L. Kashuk and Shamai A. Grossman
145. Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Devices, Michael I. Greenberg, Michael Horowitz, and Rachel Haroz
146. Rocket-Propelled Grenade Attack, Marshall Eidenberg
147. Conventional Explosion at Mass Gathering, Franklin D. Friedman
148. Conventional Explosion at a Hospital, Donald MacMillan
149. Conventional Explosion in High-Rise Building, Ryan Friedberg
150. Conventional Explosion at a Nuclear Power Plant, Michelle McMahon-Downer
151. Tunnel Explosion, Patrick Zelley
152. Liquefied Natural Gas Explosion, Michael I. Greenberg
153. Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Explosion, Jonathan M. Rubin
154. Petroleum Distillation/Processing Facility Explosion, David C. Lee and Henry C. Chang

Section Twelve: Events Resulting in Burn Injuries

155. Introduction to Fires and Burns, Marianne E. Cinat and Victoria M. VanderKam
156. Structure Fire, Deborah Gutman
157. Wilderness/Forest Fire, John Moloney
158. Tunnel Fire, Daniel L. Lemkin and Wade Gaasch

Section Thirteen: Events Resulting in Ballistics Injuries

159. Gunshot Attack: Mass Casualties, Leon D. Sanchez and Jason Imperato
160. Sniper Attack, Jennifer E. DeLaPena and Leon D. Sanchez
161. Grenade and Pipe Bomb Injuries, Charles Stewart

Section Fourteen: Events Associated with Structural Collapse/Crashing/Crushing

162. Introduction to Structural Collapse/Crash/Crush (Crush Injury: Crush Syndrome), Francesco Della Corte, Pier Luigi Ingrassia, Alessandro Geddo, and Francesca Lombardi
163. Train Derailment, J. Scott Goudie
164. Subway Derailment, Jason Dylik and David Marcozzi
165. Bus Accident, Kavita Babu
166. Aircrash Preparedness and Response, Dan Hanfling and Christopher R. Lang
167. Airshow Disaster, Peter D. Panagos
168. Asteroid, Meteoroid, and Spacecraft Re-Entry Accidents, Jay Lemery and Faith Vilas
169. Building Collapse, Catherine Y. Lee and Timothy Davis
170. Bridge Collapse, Laura Diane Melville and Najma Rahman-Kahn
171. Human Stampede, Angela M. Mills and C. Crawford Mechem
172. Mining Accident, Dale M. Molé
173. Submarine/Surface Vessel Accident, Steven T. Cobery and Dale M. Molé

Section Fifteen: Other Events, Combination Events

174. Aircraft Hijacking, Kurt R. Horst
175. Aircraft Crash into a High-Rise Building, Kurt R. Horst
176. Airliner Crash into Nuclear Power Plant, Rick G. Kulkarni
177. Dirty Bomb (Radiological Dispersal Device), George A. Alexander
178. Explosion at a Nuclear Waste Storage Facility, Constance G. Nichols
179. Maritime Disasters, Lucille Gans
180. Cruise Ship Infectious Disease Outbreak, Scott G. Weiner
181. Hostage Taking, Dale M. Molé
182. Civil Unrest and Rioting, Denis J. FitzGerald
183. Massive Power System Failures, M. Kathleen Stewart and Charles Stewart
184. Power Outage: Hospital, Mark C. Restuccia
185. Intentional Contamination of Water Supplies Resulting from Acts of Water Terrorism, Patricia L. Meinhardt
186. Food Supply Contamination, Mark C. Restuccia
187. Mass Gatherings, Katharyn E. Kennedy
188. Ecological Terrorism, George A. Alexander
189. Computer and Electronic Terrorism and EMS Implications, M. Kathleen Stewart and Charles Stewart
190. VIP Care, Lynne Barkley Burnett