Introduction to ethics: what they are and what they are not; history of ethics in healthcare. The concept of professionalism: what it means to be a professional, obligations and expectations, development of professionals in health and eyecare. The professional Code of Ethics/Healthcare Ethics and ethical concepts. Beneficence and non-maleficence in eye care practice; requirements to keep abreast of new developments. Negligence (law): what constitutes negligence. Autonomy: respect for patients decisions/ duty to inform patients. Confidentiality/ Data Protection (legal). Equality and Justice; distributive healthcare. Collegiality; fair work practice; dealing with peers, colleagues, other professionals, non-professional employees. Business ethics: the ethics of running a practice, the ethics of competition; accountability. Ethical dilemmas. Ethical theory: deeper concepts: consequentialism, deontology, Kantian theory.